Discipline Geology ,
Deepwater Exploration and Production
LevelFoundation
Duration5 Days
Delivery Mechanism Classroom
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Deepwater Reservoirs

This is an in-depth course that not only provides the background of process sedimentology required to understand deepwater systems but also teaches recognition of sediment gravity flows on sub-surface datasets. The instructor will present examples of deepwater depositional systems from world-famous outcrops such as the Ross Sandstone, the Ecca Group of South Africa, and the Ainsa system of the Spanish Pyrenees and others. The course slides are richly illustrated with seismic, well-log, and core data from basins across the globe.

Morning sessions will be devoted to lectures and afternoon sessions will be devoted to exercises where participants will learn the latest techniques in interpreting process sedimentology, and identification of architectural elements such as channels and lobes in core, conventional well-logs, borehole image logs and seismic data.

The instructor will bring a teaching collection of seismic lines, well-logs, borehole images, and core images with for participants to work on during exercises. These are from the North Sea, Offshore West and East Africa, Offshore Indus, the Barents Sea, Offshore Mid-Norway, and the Gulf of Mexico.

At the end of this course participants should be able to:

• On seismic data: differentiate between Mass Transport Complexes, Sediment Gravity Flows, and Contourites and predict Net:Gross values for each.

• On well-logs: differentiate between channels, lobes, mass transport complexes and contourite deposits.

• In core: identify processes responsible for sedimentary structures, bedforms and lithology and use these to determine environments of deposition and lateral continuity of reservoir.

• Learn to correlate reservoir sandstones using concepts developed by Mike Gardner in the Brushy Canyon Formation of the southwestern U.S.

The deepwater reservoirs course builds on several outcrop analogs including the Ross Formation of Ireland

  • Agenda
  • Topics
  • Audience
  • Prerequisites
  • Agenda

    Day 1

    Introduction

    • o Basin classification based on substrate
    • o Concept of confinement
    • o Sequence Stratigraphy

    Introduction to deepwater oil and gas exploration, global distribution of prospective deepwater areas, shelf morphology, mobile substrate basins, the concept of confinement, and sequence stratigraphy of deepwater petroleum systems: effects of relative sea-level fall on sediment gravity flows, canyon incision, longshore drift capture, discussion and identification of key surfaces such as the Maximum Flooding Surface and Sequence Boundary and their identification in seismic, well-log and core data, autocyclic vs allocyclic changes and their controls on reservoir distribution and architecture, predictive stratigraphic models of Mike Gardner (Build-Cut-Fill and Spill and Adjustment-Initiation-Growth-Retreat).

    Day 2

    Deepwater Processes

    • o Sediment Gravity Flows
    • o Fluid Gravity Flows
    • o Exercise on identification of common deepwater facies in borehole image logs and core

    Process sedimentology of deepwater systems: fluid gravity vs sediment gravity flows, hypopycnites, hyperpycnites, debrites, contourites (bottom-current deposits), turbidites, hybrid beds, linked debrites, slurry flows, traction vs suspension bedforms, liquefaction and fluidization, mass transport complexes, slides vs slumps and the effects of processes on reservoir quality. During this session you will learn how to identify deepwater processes by looking at core data and how to use the Kneller-Branney matrix to predict the occurrence of reservoir quality sands in your basin.

    Day 3

    Channels

    • o Deepwater channel hierarchy
    • o Channel evolution
    • o Levees

    Deepwater Channel storeys, elements, complexes and complex sets (hierarchy), fill, architecture, evolution, channel-axis vs channel-margin facies, recognition in outcrop, core, well-logs and seismic, assigning risk to drilling deepwater channels, confined vs poorly confined and organized vs disorganized channel belts and the preservation of reservoir quality sands, processes of flow-stripping, elutriation and flow-filtering, differentiating external vs internal levees in deepwater channel levee systems.

    Day 4

    Lobes

    • o Lobe hierarchy
    • o Facies belts
    • o Correlation methods for deepwater sands

    Deepwater lobe beds, lobe elements, lobes, lobe complexes and fans (hierarchy), axis vs fringe facies, architecture, evolution, recognition in outcrop, core, well-logs and seismic. Mud-rich, Sand-rich and Mixed-systems and their characteristics, flow efficiency and its relationship to basin morphology, compensation stacking, changes in reservoir thickness and quality as a consequence of lateral and down-dip facies change.

    Day 5

    Exploration and Development

    • o Seismic Sequence and Facies Analysis
    • o Selection of suitable analogs
    • o Geomodeling

    How to approach deepwater reservoirs from exploration to development, systematic approach in seismic interpretation of deepwater sedimentary successions, sequence analysis, seismic facies analysis, classification of your deepwater system, selecting modern and ancient analogs, seeking expertise, steps in creating geomodels: creation of facies logs, deriving geometric data such as channel thickness and width, sinuosity, and choosing the best algorithm for modeling deepwater architectural elements.

  • Topics

    1. Differentiate between Mass Transport Complexes, Sediment Gravity Flows, Contourites, and Pelagites/Hemipelagites and predict Net:Gross values and reservoir distribution using seismic data.
    2. Differentiate between channels, lobes, mass transport complexes and contourite deposits on conventional well-logs and borehole image logs.
    3. Identify processes responsible for sedimentary structures, bedforms and lithology and common deepwater lithofacies and use these to determine environments of deposition and lateral continuity of reservoir using core.
    4. Create better geomodels by integrating sub-surface datasets and understanding what algorithms to use for different architectural elements
    5. Construct cross-sections based on deepwater sequence stratigraphy
  • Audience

    Geoscientists who wish to understand deepwater reservoirs. Geoscientists, petrophysicists and engineers working on deepwater assets

  • Prerequisites

    Basic knowledge and understanding of Geology. College courses in Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.

  • Prerequisites

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