Cementing Objectives and Importance of Mud Removal
- Introduction to cementing
- Cement rheology
- Mud displacement
Participants will start off day one with a general introduction to cementing. This will set the stage for understanding the importance of effective cement placement and performance. The day will proceed to include the topics of fluid rheology, friction concepts, density hierarchy, centralization, pipe movement, spacers, and washes. Learning about these will help participants to better understanding of the impact these factors have on efficient mud removal.
Importance of Temperature for Proper Design Plus Cement Evaluation
- Temperature determination
- Temperature simulation
- Cement evaluation – logging tools and interpretation
On the second day participants will learn about the importance of accurate temperature determination and the effects high temperature have on set cement. Simulation methods for estimating circulating and static temperature will be taught. The second half of the day will be spent learning how cement evaluation tools work, how they are used, and how to interpret different cement evaluation logs. Evaluation logs will be used to illustrate how cement type, centralization and quality control affect log interpretation.
Annular Fluid Migration and Cement Defects
- Consequences of gas migration
- Paths for gas migration
- Cement slurry to solid transition effects
- Migration prevention
- Flow path effects
Day three will focus on the consequences of gas migration behind the pipe. Participants will get to learn what types of paths might form, how these paths might be prevented, and what happens as the cement slurry goes from a fluid state to a solid state. During this transition phase it is important to understand what happens and how this can be countered. Techniques and materials which can be employed to prevent gas migration will be covered. To drive this day’s learning home the participants will calculate potential flow capacity of cement sheath defects.
Mechanical Properties of Set Cement, Lab Testing, and Use of Ultrasonic Imaging Tool
- Overview of mechanical properties of solids
- Laboratory testing of cement
- Important properties for long term integrity
- Ultrasonic imaging tool (USIT)
Day four will include a short review of mechanical properties of cement, steel, and formation. Participants will learn how lab testing is performed and what the implications of test results have on the performance of the cement sheath. Some “rules of thumb” for target mechanical properties will be discussed. Remedial cement properties and material selection for long term well integrity will also be covered. Ultrasonic imaging tools will be discussed so that the participants will better understand the usefulness of this tool and how it is used to evaluate behind pipe cement performance.
- Squeeze cementing theory and objectives
- Running vs. hesitation squeezes
- Well preparation
- Recommended practices and misconceptions
The last day will cover possible remedial actions taken to fix a possible lack of integrity of the cement sheath. Remedial or squeeze cementing objectives and applications will be explained, as well as some suggested methods of performing squeeze jobs on different types of problems. The day will conclude with a review of what has been learned throughout the duration of the course.
This course will be most useful to drilling, production, and completion engineers.
Participants should have a basic knowledge of cementing and logging operations.