• Course objectives ; The role of petroleum geology; World oil reserves production and consumption; Petroleum prices; A field life cycle.
• Earth structure; Plate Tectonics; Volcano & earthquakes distributions; Fundamental rock types; Geological time scale and rock age dating; Stratigraphic time breaks & discontinuities; Geological Principles.
• Structural geology; Principle compressive stresses and their relations to rock deformation; Scales of deformation; Faulting styles; Fractures and detection methods.
• Geological mapping and contouring concepts; Depth terminology; Isopachs and Isochores; Interpretation of gross and net reservoir and net pay thicknesses; Cross-section construction; Topographic outcrop patterns; Subsurface mapping using strike lines.
• Siliciclastic depositional systems; Sandstone classification and textural characteristics; Aeolian, alluvial fan; fluvial, deltaic, shallow marine and deep marine gravity flow deposits. Synsedimentary deformation; Miocene turbiditic Marnosa-arenacea case study of N.Apennines; Log responses to depositional sequences.
• Carbonate depositional systems; Modern carbonate environments; Classification of carbonate rocks; Carbonate & clastic systems- contrasted; Carbonate ramps and platf orms; Carbonate grainstone settings; Peritidal carbonates and supratidal sabkhas; Microbial carbonates; Carbonate reefs; Re-sedimented carbonates.
• Bioturbation: surface traces, burrowing and boring by animals; Rhizoliths and palaeosols
• Correlation: structural vs. stratigraphic cross-sections; Heterogeneity; Lithostratigraphic vs. chronostratigraphic correlation; Seismic/Sequence stratigraphic concepts; Biostratigraphy.
• Diagenesis and authigenic minerals; Investigation techniques; Leaching and karstification, cementation and Rotliegendes Fm. clay cement model; replacement and neomorphism; dolomitization models; compaction and pressure solution.
• Pore systems and flow units; Porosity and permeability controls; Pore types in siliclastics and carbonates; Permeability modelling; Flow zone indicators.
• Petroleum source rocks; unconventional gas accumulations; Types of source rock organic matter; Source rock maturity indication and modelling; Pyrolysis; Hydrocarbon fingerprinting.
• Petroleum system processes and play fairways; Hydrocarbon migration; Hydrocarbon trapping mechanisms; Exploration risk analysis; Resource categorization; Hydrocarbons-in-place calculations; Monte Carlo simulation.
• 3D geocellular modelling. Building the structural-stratigraphic framework; Facies, porosity, permeability and saturation modelling; Seismic constraint; Deterministic and stochastic techniques; Fracture modelling; Flow unit definition; Quantification of uncertainty in volumetrics
• Seismic methods and petroleum geology; Basic principles of the reflection seismic method; Data acquisition; Data processing; Seismic multiples and seismic migration; 2D, 3D and borehole seismic ; Interpreting seismic results using seismic attributes; Direct hydrocarbon indicators; Time-lapse 3D seismic surveys; Interpretation pitfalls.
• Open hole wireline logging. History; Basic tool types and their responses; Basic interpretation of lithology, porosity and water saturation, including clay corrections .
• General Geology
• Structural Features
• Geological Mapping and Cross-sections
• Depositional Systems – Clastics and Carbonates
• Bioturbation and Diagenesis
• Correlation and Stratigraphy
• Pore Systems and Flow Units
• Petroleum Systems
• Geological Modeling
• Seismic and Wireline methods
Geoscientists and Petroleum Engineers who require a fundamental understanding of the role and relation of Geology to their job.
Basic understanding of the Oil & Gas industry.