Module 1 – Introduction
Objectives –How seismic data assists today’s E&P - 2D vs 3D - Interpreting Seismic Data – Size of operations - Issues & Concerns
Module 2 – Basic Concepts of Seismic Surveying
What makes a seismic trace – Body & Surface waves - Reflection and refraction - Basics of seismic fold and image or stacked traces – Stacking Diagrams
Module 3 – Seismic Wave Propagation
Principles of wave propagation - Physical basis of wave types – Huygens‘s principle - Refractions and Diffractions - Seismic Velocities - Reflection amplitude, converted waves and AVO
Module 4 – Signal Analysis
Waves in time and space, Frequency and Wavenumber, Fourier analysis - Aliasing both spatial and temporal – FK transform - Convolution - Cross & Auto correlation.
Module 5 – Seismic Reflection Principles
Properties of Seismic Waveforms and traces – Polarity - Vertical Resolution – Lateral Resolution – Tuning - Amplitude Effects
Module 6 – Field Data Acquisition Principles
Types of Seismic Data Acquisition – Marine, Land, Transition, Borehole, Ocean Bottom, TimeLapse – Signal and Noise – Field Array Design – Alternatives to arrays – Common Reasons for Failure
Module 7 – Marine Acquisition Systems and Operations
Overall Layout – Towing Technology - Sources – Receivers – Benefits of Single sensor recording - Streamer Positioning – Narrow, Wide & Multi Azimuth - Over Under / DISCover – Slanted Cables - Gradient Measurements – Ocean Bottom Recording - Simultaneous Sources - Quality Assurance
Module 8– Land Acquisition Systems and Operations
Sources – Sensors – Positioning - Recording the Data – Arrays or Single Sensor Recording – Full Azimuth recording - Simultaneous Sources – Industry Trends Quality Assurance
Module 9 – Near-Surface Distortion Correction
Causes of Distortions – Seismic Datum – Long & short wavelength statics
- Surface Consistency - Methods of Correction – Identifying errors
Module 10 – Wavelets and Wavelet Shaping
Reasons why Wavelet Shaping is necessary – Types of wavelets – Zero & Minimum phase
- Types of Deconvolution - Decon.’s place in the sequence – Examples.
Module 11 – Regularization
The need for regularization – Types of methods used – Cautions - Examples
Module 12 – Noise Attenuation
Noise Types – Noise Removal Methodologies – Organised Noise – Radon Transforms
- Seismic Interference - Random Noise – Examples
Module 13 – Multiple Attenuation
What are multiples? – Types of multiple - Classifications and examples of removal methods
More (different) Radon Transforms – Data Examples
Module 14 Velocity Analysis for Time Processing
Types of velocity – NMO stretch – Velocity Analysis Techniques – Potential pitfalls
Module 15 – Velocity Model Building
Importance of velocity - Types of Model geometries – Tomography – Velocity model building techniques – Diving Wave, Tomographic, Complex Salt, Full Waveform Inversion, Multi Azimuth
Module 16 Imaging
Differences between Time and Depth Imaging – Limitations of Post stack imaging - Current Imaging Techniques - Their strengths and weaknesses - Examples – Likely future trends
Module 17 Imaging with Anisotropy
What is anisotropy? – How is it caused – Thomsen’s parameters – Different types of anisotropy – Rules of thumb - Examples
Module 18 – Survey Design
Survey Objectives – Geophysical & Processing Considerations
– 3D Surveying – CMP distribution – Binning – Critical Survey parameters
– Calculating their values - Survey Size Calculations – Migration Apertures – Artifacts and Footprints
Recap and Review
Understand seismic fundamentals as they affect the interpretation of seismic data.
Understand the concepts involved in imaging geologic structures and properties through seismic data acquisition and processing.
Comprehend the parameters that can seriously affect seismic data quality and costs.
Be familiar with ways to determine whether seismic data has been recorded and processed in a technically correct manner for subsurface objectives.
Communicate effectively with seismic specialists.