Advanced Formation Evaluation in Sandstones
This course will be suitable for all geoscientists and engineers who will benefit greatly from exposure to advanced knowledge and expertise in formation evaluations in clastics.
The course covers solutions for evalating various shaly sand reservoirs including technqiues and equations.
The course covers petrophysical evaluation and the challenges of evaluating low resistivity pay sands and determineing pay characteristics.
- Geology of clastics reservoirs
- The Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential logs to obtain Vsh and Formation Water Salinity
- Defining the clay type
- Overview of standard logging tools
- Quick-Look data evaluation
- Applications of the density-neutron cross plot to determine effective porosity, total porosity, hydrocarbon effect and shale volume
- Hydrocarbon effects on density-neutron cross-plots.
- Acoustic measurements and the acoustic scanner to determine sand compaction and mechanical properties
Evaluation of Shales:
- Overview of shales and their depositional environments
- The various procedures to estimate Vsh.
- Estimating Vsh from spectroscopy from direct measurements of Al or obtaining an Al emulator.
- Defining the volumes of dispersed and laminated shales using Thomas Steubar and Popoun-Juasz .
- Evaluating the Cations Exchange Capacity (CEC) of shales
- Evaluating the silt volumes from standard logs.
Shaly sand equations:
- The family of empirically derived equations used
- Excess Conductivity shaly sand equations: Waxman-Smits (WS), Dual-Water, Modified W-S
- Comparison of the results from the various equations
High Technology tools and their applications in shally sand-Sand formations. This includes:
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Dielectric Logs, Micro-resistivity Imaging
- Permeability Estimations in Sandstone-Reservoirs
- Geology of clastics reservoirs and tectonic activities
- Gamma Ray (GR) and Spontaneous Potential: Tool physics and applications to estimate clay volume, clay type and formation water salinities.
- Acoustics: Tool physics and applications for rock mechanics; well bore stability, and sandstone compaction. The applications of acoustic to predict High Pressure zones. The physics and applications of Sonic-Scanner to evaluate anisotropy.
- Nuclear Log data: Density, Photo electric and neutron tools theory and applications to clastics reservoir. Detailed applications of the density-neutron cross plot to estimate the volume of clay (Vcl, Vsh) and the trends in silt, laminated shale and dispersed shale.
- Core analysis to obtain porosity, and permeability.
- Shale Analysis: Elemental Capture Spectroscopy to give evaluations of lithology and shale volume, Evaluations of dispersed and laminated shales.
- Definition and measurement of the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and its applications in the Waxman-Smits Equation.
- Detailed derivation of the Dual Water Equation and comparison with the Waxman-Smits and modified Waxman-Smits equations.
- Log Interpretations in Clastics; This covers in details the derivation and applications of the various shaly-sand equations both the empirical versions (e.g. Indonesia, Nigeria, etc..) and the excess conductivity equations (e.g. Waxman-Smits, Dual Water, etc..).
- Permeability estimations in clastics reservoirs.
- Pore Geometry and Flow Units. This covers:
- Capillary Pressure Measurements and capillary pressure obtained from NMR
- J-Factor applications
- Flow Units applying Modified Lorenz principle
- Petro-Rock Typing
Geoscientists and engineers
Participants should have a basic understanding of standard formation evaluation methods.