Formation Evaluation - Heriot-Watt University Course
This class is part of the Heriot-Watt University Distance Learning Masters of Petroleum Engineering program. It is intended to give a broad understanding of the principles of Formation Evaluation. The Course aims are to give the participant: an understanding of the concepts of formation evaluation and well logging; an understanding of the physical principles of the tools used in logging; and an ability to characterize formations based on interpretation of well logs. More specifically, by the end of the course, the participant will: Understand the properties of rocks and fluids that produce characteristic signals; be able to read and interpret a well log; be able to analyze the measurements and correct for environmental factors; and be able to interpret the log to discern porosity, water saturation, lithology, and hydrocarbon content
This course forms part of the Heriot-Watt Distance Learning MSc Petroleum Engineering. Classes may be attended by individuals who seek to understand better the subject but who are not registered for the degree course.
- History, wireline logging (lwd)/(mwd), log data acquisition, data processing, data transmission, log runs, log presentations, rock classification system, porosity, saturation, permeability , capillary pressure, fluid properties, water salinity.
- Summary of procedures used in log interpretation - correlate and depth match logs, interpret lithology, identification of permeable and non-permeable zones from logs, determine and divide the formations into water bearing and hydrocarbon bearing zones, determine the porosity of the zones of interest, determination of saturation.
- Borehole environment and invasion profiles.
- Log measurements and tools - radioactivity and gamma ray tools, gr log interpretation, limitations and various corrections applied, spontaneous potential measurements and sp tool, sp log interpretation, limitations and various corrections applied, calculation of formation water resistivity (rw) using sp log, calculation of shale volume (vshale) using data from gr and sp tools.
- Porosity type tools - detailed description of the main porosity type tools including sonic, density and neutron, their advantages, key limitations, and various corrections applied to the tools.
- Porosity calculation from individual tools - determination of porosity from acoustic log, determination of porosity from density log, determination of porosity from neutron log.
- Effect of different parameters on apparent porosity of tools including the presence of hydrocarbons, clays, secondary porosity, open fractures, overpressure intervals.
- Determination of lithology and mixture porosity in complex formations - neutron-density crossplots, sonic-density crossplots, sonic-neutron crossplots, density-photoelectric cross section crossplots, ngs crossplots, m-n plot, mid plot, matrix identification plot, effect of shaliness, secondary porosity and hydrocarbons on these crossplots.
- Nuclear magnetic resonance tool - its principle of operation and applications in hydrocarbon industry.
- Resistivity tools - detailed description of the normal, laterolog and induction type resistivity tools, resistivity invasion profiles.
- Saturation determination - determination of saturation in clean formations, resistivity vs porosity crossplot, microresistivity vs porosity crossplots, resistivity ratio methods, shaly formations.
- Course summary.
The concepts of formation evaluation and well logging; the physical principles of the tools used in logging; how to characterize formations based on interpretation of well logs; how the properties of rocks and fluids produce characteristic signals; reading and interpreting well logs; analyzing the measurements and correcting for environmental factors and interpreting logs to estimate porosity, water saturation, lithology, and hydrocabon content.
Geared to technical professionals, including engineers, geoscientists, or operations personnel, who need an introduction to technical theory and techniques.
Trainee Petroleum engineers and specialist service company engineers.
A general Knowledge of Petroleum Geoscience would be useful.