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    3D structural modelling of rift-scale fault geometry and stratigraphy: a field, lecture and Petrel workshop - Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis module - Gulf of Corinth, Greece - Duplicate course

    The course is designed to demonstrate the geometric and kinematic features of normal faults, with an emphasis on systematic variation of displacement, and the associated sedimentation at seismic scale. The course combines outcrop observations and mapping with the construction of 3D structural models of the fault geometries, the stratigraphy, and associated structural “traps” and fault juxtapositions using the Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis module. The course combines field observations and mapping of world-class exposures of rift-related faults and syn-rift stratigraphic architectures in the Gulf of Corinth with lecture material, classroom-based exercises, and software training. The group is divided into teams of two to work together for mapping in the field and producing a model using Petrel for presentation at the end of the course.

    At the conclusion of this course, the attendees will have a more comprehensive understanding of fault systematics in geometry and kinematics and the fault controls on sedimentation and how the systematics may be applied in improving subsurface interpretation. The participants will have an understanding of the applications in the Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis module to improve the workflows for fault and horizon interpretation and for the evaluation of cross-fault sealing as controlled by juxtaposition and other trap risks.

    Location is the Gulf of Corinth, Greece. The course includes two field days based at Loutraki in the eastern Gulf of Corinth, and five days of combined lectures, classroom exercises and fieldwork based at Kalavrita in the Peloponnese.

    Day 1

    • Attendees arrive at Athens in late afternoon and meet at Sofitel hotel, Athens airport.

    • Drive to Loutraki along the eastern coast of the Gulf of Corinth (approximately 1 hour) and check into local hotel.

    • Dinner and introduction in hotel restaurant.

    Day 2

    Provide a general overview of the basic basin geometry and introduction to the sedimentological and structural controls and resulting architectures with a drive from Loutraki across the Perachora Peninsula to its northern coast along the Alkyonides Gulf and loop back to Loutraki.

    • Early morning: Drive to Monastery-fault northwest of Loutraki with view of Corinth canal and Gulf of Corinth.

    o Discussion of safety.

    o Overview of area and discussion of fault styles and fault rock evolution.

    • Heraion on western tip of peninsula.

    o View of evidence for uplift and subsidence and normal fault offset geometry and styles.

    • Pisia fault (fault scarp from 1981).

    o Exposed normal fault scarp showing geometry of fault surface and evidence of offset during single earthquake event.

    • Skinos beach – fault overview.

    o Overview of fault scarps to north on coast with decreasing fault displacement evident, overlapping faults and depositional subsidence on the beach. Fault throw influence on the deposition is evident from these beach outcrops to the east.

    • Continue drive along coast with a few stops to view fault scarps and active subsidence in hanging wall from sunken lagoons and raised beaches.

    • Lunch in field.

    • Psatha bay fault.

    o View from footwall uplift of major basin bounding normal fault and relationship to other faults and basin fill in hanging wall.

    o View of complexity of fault escarpment from base of steep escarpment.

    • Return to Loutraki with view and discussion of Megara Basin.

    • Dinner in Loutraki

    Day 3

    Overview of fault zone architecture and fault linkages as exposed across the Corinth Canal and drive to Kalavrita.

    • Check out of hotel and drive to Corinth canal (approximately 10 minutes).

    o Discussion of team exercises along the canal.

    o Divide into teams and complete mapping exercises.

    o Interpretation of the faults in cross-section along the Corinth canal to view the changes in throw and architecture as the faults cut the section.

    • Lunch on boat down Corinth Canal (depending on availability).

    • Time permitting, walk down the tracks along the northwestern part of the canal to view the stratigraphic variability and deposition during unique stages of subsidence.

    • Drive to Kalavrita (approximately 2 hours) and check into hotel.

    • Dinner in town.

    Day 4

    The remainder of the week is spent in the Vouraikos River Valley mapping the fault geometry and sediment patterns, in classroom lectures, and completing the 3D model exercises in Petrel.

    • Morning Lectures.

    o Mapping introduction and goals.

    o Basic rift tectonics.

    o Overview of Gulf of Corinth tectonics.

    o Fault geometry, kinematics and linkages.

    • Lunch in hotel.

    • Drive to Mount Helmos and map fault and sediments down into valley towards Kalavrita.

    o Review sedimentary style changes with proximity to fault scarp.

    o Discuss evidence of fault linkages and orientation.

    • Quarry overview stop for regional fault geometry overview.

    • Drive across road and up to wind-turbine overview for regional view of faults in valley.

    • Dinner in town

    Day 5

    • Early morning lecture (total approximately 1.5 hours in classroom).

    o Rift tectonics and sedimentation.

    o Fault linkage classroom exercise.

    • Late morning drive to monastery overview of valley from café and walk up to monastery to view the Dhoumena fault exposure and associated sedimentary fill.

    • Return south to map quarry fault, and further up the road to map the trace of the fault and the associated sedimentation and to discuss fault linkages.

    • Lunch in field.

    • Map fault along road section and follow geological contacts up wind-turbine overview.

    • Return to valley and cross main road to quarry fault and southern loop mapping quarry fault.

    • Return to Kalavrita and dinner in town

    Day 6

    • Morning lecture

    o Introduction to modelling and Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis tools.

    • Late morning: Drive to monastery cliff face cross-section overview for detailed mapping of tilted fault blocks.

    • Climb to Dhoumena fault outcrop exposure and discuss the fault zone processes and seal controls.

    • Map tilted fault cliff face overview and review regional and local fault geometry.

    • Lunch in field.

    • Drive north to coastal overview of fan delta overlooking Gulf of Corinth and discuss fault controls on sedimentation, fault timing and rates of motion and fault linkages.

    • Return by retracing route back to Kalavrita.

    • Dinner in town.

    Day 7

    • Morning:

    o Lecture on Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis module workflows

    o Teams start to build 3D model of mapped faults and stratigraphy using the map base from the outcrop exercises.

    • Late morning: Drive back to monastery turn-off to exposures of modern fan deltas.

    • Lunch in field or taverna during afternoon.

    • Kerinitis fan delta overview and discussion of the fault kinematics and control on depositional styles.

    • Return making stops along western edge of study area to discuss the regional fault extensions.

    • Dinner on own in town.

    Day 8

    • Teams work to complete Petrel exercises and prepare presentations.

    • Lunch in town.

    • Make final presentations.

    • Course review and evaluations.

    • Final group dinner.

    The course is aimed at geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers who wish to improve their skills in subsurface interpretation and the 3D modelling of rift settings.

    The integration of the outcrop and software models is designed to emphasize the functionality and application of fault interpretation and fault juxtaposition analysis in the SFA module in Petrel including:

    • Clean-up of horizon interpretation data and structural uncertainty modeling.

    • Structural framework and pillar gridding of faults.

    • Fault–horizon interpretation intersections.

    • Fault-throw profiles and cumulative frequency plots.

    • Fault geometric analysis (including dip, azimuth, throw, heave).

    • Fault juxtaposition analysis.

    A general background knowledge of geological concepts and Petrel is assumed.

    Currently there are no scheduled classes for this course.

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