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    Deepwater Seismic Interpretation

    This course addresses the problem of accurate seismic interpretation in deep-water and the delicate construction of seismic maps in the deep-water realm. It is intended to all petroleum professionals involved in exploration and production, geophysicists, geologists, rock physicists, reservoir engineers and drilling engineers.

    Seismic interpretation is covered with a series of practical examples that focuses on the deepwater realm, with emphasis on proximal, intermediate and distal marine reservoirs. Acquisition and processing of 2D and 3D data is also discussed in what concerns the practical use of the rather extensive growing database libraries in deepwater.

    The distinct data challenges in deepwater are examined in detail so that it would lead to practical problem of drilling locations and the finding and development of deepwater deposits.. Issues in the drilling of deep-water wells such as thickness of the overburden, pore-pressure prediction and geo-steering, are discussed. Practical workshops involve understanding of the main techniques in the seismic section interpretation and in precise structural contouring mapping in deep-water, with focus on the continental slope bathymetry correction and its effect upon time and depth maps. Handling of seismic velocities, depth conversion, comparisons of 2D vs. 3D data, and the principles of 4D and of 4C seismology are also briefly discussed. Time-slice of 3D datasets, seismic interpretation of attributes of amplitude and phase are applied to the mapping exercises for the purpose of better reservoir characterization and possible occurrence of fluid effects.

    COURSE OBJECTIVES are the practical understanding of aspects concerning the precise deep-water seismic interpretation fundamental for successfully drilling oil and gas wells in the deep-water realm. Correct estimates of seismic velocities and map contouring techniques in deep-water are essential for achieving ideal vertical and deviated well locations and to the geo-steering of horizontal wells upon reservoir development.

    The course covers the essentials of offshore seismic data from acquisition to processing and interpretation. To this effect it examines seismic tape formats, data libraries, design of seismic proprietary and spec surveys, data processing workflows in deepwater and the utilization of interpretation software in workstations Methodologies for correct interpretation of seismic sections and the techniques applied in the architecture details of map contouring are discussed in connection with suites of exercises that apply these techniques in offshore data of passive and compressive continental margins, covering the outer shelf, slope, rise and basin.

    Focus is given to the interpretation of deep-water reservoirs, mainly proximal, intermediate and distal turbidites. The main differences between hand-drawn interpretation and computer workstation mapping are discussed so that the principles of interpretation may be utilized to quality control computer section interpretation and computer mapping. This is particularly important in deep-water due to the effect of bathymetry over contouring and depth conversion.

    Comparisons between hand contouring and computer contouring are carried out for the purpose of understanding the subtleties of subjective hand contouring versus grid algorithm contouring. Special emphasis is therefore given to hand contouring map interpretation comparisons with modern workstation software grid interpretation mapping for 2D and 3D data sets. Comparative interpretation of the main prospective deep-water regions of the world such as Gulf of Mexico, Offshore Brazil, West Africa, North Sea and Southeast Asia are effected with suite of comprehensive exercises covering structural and stratigraphic interpretation and the use of seismic attributes. Rift and compressional mapping exercises cover normal and reverse faults handling, the understanding of paleo-lows and paleo-highs and flattening of bathymetry for re-construction of basin tectonism. Handling of seismic velocities in deep-water are made with specific exercises of depth conversion. Attendees are daily given hands-on mapping problems and exercises that cover geophysical exploration and development mapping in deep-water. Salt tectonics models over distinct basins are examined and comparisons made for basin architectures and hydrocarbon plays of autochthonous salt vs allochtonous salt.


    Day 1

    Deep-Water Seismology.

    Seismic Interpretation Concepts.

    History of the Seismic Reflection Method.

    Reflection & Refraction, Wave Equations, Poisson’s Ratio. Wavelets, Convolution, Synthetic Seismograms.

    Amplitude and Phase Spectrum - Deconvolution.

    Seismic Acquisition and Processing Workflows.

    Deep-Water Petroleum Geology Provinces and World Distribution of Deep-Water Basins.

    Exploration and Production in Deep-Water.

    Deep-Water Seismic Reflection Section Parameters 2D and 3D.

    Un-migrated and Migrated Deep-water Seismic Sections and Dip and Strike Sections in the Deep-water Realm.

    Seismic Ties, Time Maps. Four-Way Dip Closures, Fault Closures- Exercises.

    Structural Interpretation in Deep-Water - Examples.

    Seismic Stratigraphic Mapping in Deep and Ultra deep-water. Onlaps/Toplaps/Downlaps/Offlaps - Exercise.

    Sands and Carbonates Reservoirs Stratigraphy. Deep-Water Reservoirs Stratigraphy - Turbidites.

    Well Location and DrillMap Exercise.

    Bright-spots - Dim-spots - Flat-spots. Seismic Attribute Analyses.

    AVO – Amplitude Variation with Offset Evaluations

    Day 2

    Deep-Water Mapping Techniques.

    Map contouring exercises - anticline, rift basin, compressional basin.

    Interpretation of deep-water records offshore rifted margins.

    Data Comparisons: Gulf of Mexico, Offshore Brazil and West Africa, North Sea, Australia Northern Shelf/Slope, Southeast Asia Timor and Arafura Seas, Andaman Sea.

    Mapping Exercise #1: Top and Base Salt Mapping in deepwater. Pull-up correction base salt. Bathymetry correction. Mapping Techniques - Discussion. Time and Depth Map Contouring in deepwater.

    Mapping Exercise #2: Syn-Rift Isopach Mapping. Seismic Velocities: Average, Interval, NMO, RMS, Dix Equation.

    Depth Conversion Techniques: PSTM and PSDM.

    Gas seeps and gas hydrates recognition. Overpressure prediction

    Day 3

    Deep-Water Reservoirs Interpretation Techniques.

    Mapping reservoir porosity, net to gross and net pay thickness.

    Reservoir identification - bright spots, dim-spots, flat-spots.

    Attributes: amplitude, frequency and phase, windowed attributes.

    Comparative Interpretation of Post-Stack & Pre-Stack Time Migration.

    Pre-Stack Depth Migration - Interpretation.

    Mapping Exercise #3: Turbidite Play Offshore Brazil. Mapping Techniques Precision.

    Map Contouring - Block Faulting.

    Deepwater Petroleum Systems: Source Rock Burial, Migration Paths, Trap Formation, Hydrocarbon Emplacement.

    Prospect Generation ; Risking of Deep-Water Prospects ; Project Economics.

    Day 4

    Deep-Water Compression Tectonics - Mapping Interpretation.

    Southeast Asia: Makassar Strait, South Irian Jaya, South China Sea, Palawan Basin, West Natuna Sea.

    Mapping Exercise #4: Southeast Asia Deep-Water Reservoirs.

    Fault Contouring. Discussion of Mapping Techniques.

    Velocities and Depth Conversion in deep-water.

    Wells Location and Depth Map Construction.

    Day 5

    Course and Projects Review.

    Course Test(s).

    Case Histories – GoM, West Africa, East Brazil, North Sea, Asia .

    Course Review – Thematic discussion, topics, questions, answers.

    Final Test.

    Geologists, Geophysicists and Engineers who need to understand Seismic Interpretation in Deep Water Environments

    Some knowledge of Applied Petroleum Geology-especially DeepWater Geology

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