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Time-lapse (or 4D) seismic is an integral part of reservoir management in many major and medium size oil companies. Successful case studies have demonstrated how using 4D seismic can overcome reservoir engineering challenges. This course provides the hands-on skills of utilizing 4D seismic in addressing reservoir management strategies. The 4D course will be delivered in one week to cover 1D to 3D modelling and 4D reservoir characterization. The course will be given in a conventional classroom presentation in modular form. Discussion and interaction with the instructors throughout this time is encouraged.
This course is designed for geoscientists with an understanding of basic seismic theory who have some practical experience of Petrel who wish to learn the more advanced aspects of 4D seismic modelling.
There are four main topics: 4D reservoir monitoring technology review and application, review of reservoir engineering concepts in 4D seismic concept, 4D seismic rock physics known as petro-elastic modelling, and seismic modelling.
This course aims to train students in 4D seismic related topics so that they can actively get involved in performing 4D seismic studies and provide reservoir management solutions. The audience should come away with a broader understanding, and specific working tools, for the use and interpretation of 4D seismic.
There are practical exercises to provide hands on experience in executing the workflows.
Day 1: An overview of 4D seismic technology
Morning (Theory): in this session, the fundamentals of 4D seismic concepts will be explained. The business driver of 4D seismic will be discussed. A gallery of 4D seismic success stories will be shown. Various integrations with other disciplines will be examined.
Afternoon (Practical): The exercise is to calculate the value of 4D seismic information versus drilling and compute the increased production monetary value.Day 2
Day 2: Review of reservoir engineering concepts in 4D context
Morning (Theory): the interpretation of 4D seismic data should always be validated and constrained by reservoir engineering data and models. Therefore it is important to understand and talk the reservoir engineer’s language. In this chapter, the aim is to cover topics such as production recovery natural reservoir energies, EOR recovery techniques, displacement efficiency and sweep, PVT, conventional tools for reservoir management and forecasting in 4D seismic context.
Afternoon (Practical): the exercise is to get familiar with the flow simulation model and perform 4D seismic interpretations and qualitative analysis.Day 3
Day 3: 4D rock physics: the link between petrophysics and 4D seismic
Morning (Theory): various 4D related rock physics modelling will be explained in this chapter. The following topics will be covered: rock physics and its application; basic definitions; parameters affecting velocities: stress, lithologies, compactions, fluid substitution, bounds and mixing rules; anisotropy.
Afternoon (Practical): to re-enforce the theory, the following rock physics exercises will be given in the course: Batzle and Wang; Gassmann fluid substitution; Other rock physics models- Hertz Mindlin, DEM; pressure sensitivity and saturation sensitivity of 4D RP model. The fluid substitution is performed in 1D and 3D grids.Day 4
Day 4: AVO and seismic modelling
Morning (Theory): topics such as AVO theories, sonic calibration, seismic-well ties, AVO modelling, how to load/QC data and interpret the AVO models will be explained in this chapter. To follow, seismic modelling is linked to the time-lapse effects and 4D seismic signal.
Afternoon (Practical): the practical part of this chapter will be done in Petrel using the rock physics infrastructure and AVO modelling tools. We will be using Petrel to forward model the flow simulation to the seismic signal.Day 5
Day 5: 4D seismic modelling advanced topics
Morning (Theory): advanced modelling techniques of anisotropy, heavy oil rock physics modelling, 4D in carbonates, finite difference seismic modelling is discussed
Afternoon (Practical): students present their findings from their team work in the class.
Geoscientists involved in field management with knowledge of seismic interpretation techniques and some practical experience of working in Petrel wishing to learn the more advanced aspects of 4D seismic modelling. And in general, Petroleum engineers, geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, managers, and others wanting to know what 4D seismic is.
This training assumes that attendees have experience working with Petrel and also:
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