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Oil & Gas Training
and Competency Development
Competency Management system SLB NEXT

Seismic Processing for Interpreters and Others

This course is an introductory course designed for individuals who work with seismic data. Those individuals may be processing geophysicists, seismic interpreters or acquisition specialists. This course illustrates the ramifications of processing decisions on subsequent interpretations, showing data’s potential and the possible pitfalls for the unwary. The course is also of value for seismic acquisition specialists who desire to understand the constraints that seismic processing places on acquisition design.

The core course presents material in a sequence that is the opposite of the sequence used in processing. There are a few reasons for teaching the course in reverse order. Because each processing step has its own input requirements, understanding those requirements provides the motivation for understanding the each preceding processing step. The reversed order maintains the interest of those who are more knowledgeable about processing, causing those individuals to rethink their understanding in a new fashion. Finally, the reverse order engages interpreters from its start because the interpretation-heavy migration presentations at the start and not the conclusion of the course.

While quantitative, mathematical procedures inherently comprise seismic processing, this course uses cartoons and real data examples to provide an intuitive understanding of the seismic processing procedures. In total, the course contains a couple of thousand illustrations, selected or created to enhance understanding.

For later reference, the course participants will be provided two, textbooks covering the course content with the same full, written descriptions as contained in the course itself

Day 1

• Zero-offset reflection coefficients and reflection coefficients’’ amplitude dependence with offset

• Simple imaging using zero-offset data, with the use of the NMO equation and Dix interval velocities

• Concept of zero-offset migration

• Artifacts introduced by migrating incomplete data, including 2D data

• Role of velocity in migration

• Kirchhoff and reverse-time, zero-offset migration algorithms

Day 2

• Fourier transform (amplitude and phase), convolution and correlation

• Normal moveout correction and stack to convert data to zero offset

• Estimation of stacking velocities

• NMO and stack’s failures

• Kirchhoff before-stack migration

• Three imaging conditions and before-stack, wave-equation migration algorithms

• Anisotropic migration

Day 3

• Velocity analysis for depth migration, including tomography with attention to salt-related velocity analysis

• Full-waveform inversion

• Simplistic time migration

• Extended imaging condition and migration velocity analysis

Day 4

• Multiple attenuation and role of wide-azimuth acquisition geometry in multiple attenuation

• Dipping multiples

• Statics, land and marine

• Amplitude corrections

• 1-D and 2-D filtering, including f-k filtering

Day 5

• Wavelets and deconvolution

• Vertical seismic profile as a phase tool

• The Fresnel zone

• Improving spatial resolution

• Improving resolution of depth estimation

• Sample processing sequences

• Ramifications of processing decisions

• Noise

Learning activity mix

Processing geophysicists, seismic interpreters or acquisition specialists

• Reflection and AVO

• Simple imaging

• Concept of zero-offset migration

• Role of velocity in migration

• Migration algorithms

• Fourier transform

• NMO correction - zero offset

• Estimation of stacking velocities

• Kirchhoff before-stack migration

• Anisotropic migration

• Velocity analysis

• Full-waveform inversion

• Simplistic time migration

• Multiple attenuation

• Statics, land and marine

• Amplitude corrections

• 1-D and 2-D filtering, including f-k filtering

• Wavelets and deconvolution

• Vertical seismic profile as a phase tool

• Improving spatial resolution

• Sample processing sequences

• Ramifications of processing decisions

Basic understanding of the principles of Geophysics

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