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This course integrates lecture-theory, outcrop observations and exercises, and the Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis module to improve interpretation and analysis of fault and trap geometry, fault zone processes, and trap and seal risks in exploration and development projects.
The main objective of this course is to use field exposures supplemented with classroom lectures and software exercises to train attendees on the methods and concepts on interpreting fault geometry and seal and associated risk to improve the interpretation of faulted traps in the subsurface. The excellent exposures of fault styles and fault zones in Utah are at a similar scale to subsurface traps.
Structure maps on key horizons from the outcrop are used as analogues to subsurface traps and serve as a base for exercises throughout the week. The group is separated into teams of two who use maps and synthetic well logs to produce “prospects” integrating the concepts learned during the week. Outcrop demonstrations and exercises provide a basis to apply the theory and methodology to interpret these behaviors in the subsurface using the Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis module.
The course starts on Sunday afternoon with a drive to Moab, Utah, from Grand Junction, Colorado and ends on Saturday morning with a return drive to Grand Junction for flights home. The week is spent in Moab, Utah where the outcrops are within a short driving distance. Lectures and software based exercises are held within a conference style meeting room at a local hotel in Moab
Travel from Grand Junction to Moab – Approximately 2 hours.
• Enroute discuss the regional geological setting in the Piceance and Paradox basin and the Uncompahgre uplift for a regional overview.
• STOP 1: Riverside stop to view stratigraphy.
• STOP 2: Hittle Bottom to view regional tectonic maps and discuss well logs etc.Day 2
Morning Lecture: Hotel conference facilities
• General course overview, introduction, goals and outcomes.
• HSE discussion.
• Regional geological overview.
• Fault evolution and linkage (2hrs).
• Introduction to the SFA module in Petrel.
Late morning to afternoon: Field
• Arches National Park – Normal fault styles and linkages, interpretation exercise, reservoir scale fault compartmentalization.
o Stop 1: Regional overview on Potash road.
o Stop 2: Overview of Moab Fault.
o Stop 3: View point of Delicate Arch.
o Stop 4: Delicate Arch relay – mapping exercise of normal fault geometry at Cache Valley relay ramp leading to Delicate Arch.Day 3
All day software training: Hotel conference facilities
• Integrated Petrel exercise: Cache Valley relay.
o Geomodel construction and evaluation of Cache Valley relay ramp.
o Development or horizon and fault data into robust fault model suitable for structural analysis.
o Focus on fault evolution and structural styles including fault tip extension and the impact on cross-fault juxtapositions. Participants will be drawing on lectures and field exercise from Day 2.Day 4
Morning: Lecture, Hotel conference facilities.
• Fault seal theory and controls on flow including fault rock styles, permeability and capillary controls on flow, fault seal theory, analysis and prediction methods.
Late morning and afternoon: Field
• Arches National Park.
o Stop 1: Arches National Park.
Exercise of small faults in reservoir.
Overview of sub-seismic faults.
Discussion of fault zone processes in well exposed fault with clay and sand smear.
o Stop 2: Moab anticline exercise.
Group exercise mapping Moab Anticline prospect.Day 5
Morning: Software, Hotel conference facilities.
• Integrated exercise: Moab anticline.
o Geomodel construction and evaluation of the Moab anticline prospect mapped in field based exercise in Day 3.
o Evaluation of horizons and faults.
o Juxtaposition analysis and introduction to fault property analysis.
o Discussion on integrated exercise.
Late morning and afternoon: Field
• Northern part of Moab Fault
o Map exercise of Moab Fault to review normal fault linkages and associated deformation.
o Discuss fault zone architecture.
o Discuss deformation in damage zones and small-scale faulting.
o Exercise reviewing juxtaposition triangle diagrams and fault zone characteristics.
o Stop 1: Overview of Moab Fault.
o Stop 2: Overview of relay ramp from distance.
o Stop 3: Mapping breached relay.Day 6
All day software training: Hotel conference facilities.
• Integrated trap analysis and volume prediction.
o Completion of integrated exercises.
o Calibrated column height and seal capacity estimates.
o Applied seal analysis and prospect evaluation – identifying and risking fault windows, identifying fault spills and estimating fault sealing capacity.
o Basic volumetric estimate based on seal analysis.
• Group presentation on prospect selection, risking, seal capacity and volume estimate.
• Review and discussion of exercise and prospects.
• Final remarks and conclusions of course.
• Group meal in Moab.
The course is designed for exploration and production geologists, geophysicists and engineers working in seismic interpretation of faulted prospects in exploration and development plays.
The integration of the outcrop and software models are designed to emphasize the functionality and application of fault interpretation and seal analysis in the SFA module including:
• Clean-up of horizon interpretation data and structural uncertainty modeling.
• Structural framework and pillar gridding of faults.
• Fault–horizon interpretation intersections.
• Fault-throw profiles and cumulative frequency plots.
• Fault geometric analysis (including dip, azimuth, throw, heave).
• Fault juxtaposition analysis.
• Fault clay content predictions (SGR, ESGR, clay smears).
• Fault seal prediction (standard published global equations, core calibrated functions).
• Sealing capacity and column height predictions.
• Fault permeability and threshold pressure predictors.
By the end of the course, participants will be confident in:
• Applying concepts of fault geometry and kinematics to improve subsurface fault interpretation.
• Identifying and understanding key uncertainties in risking traps with fault seal components.
• Estimating seal capacities and column heights from capillary seal concepts and clay contents derived from a range of algorithms and incorporating the methodologies in the SFA module in Petrel.
• Identifying potential trap scenarios and full workflows and methods for deriving seal capacities directly within Petrel.
• Generating structural models with correct horizon and fault intersections, and checking the quality and uncertainty of the interpretation and model at various stages within the SFA module in Petrel.
None, but good understanding of Geology and also experience PETREL software application are recommended.
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