Introduction / orientation / Welcome: The class will be welcomed to the training course. This will include a brief outline of the history of the course and the main areas that will be reviewed. An overview of the training will be discussed with participants to determine if the agenda meets the needs of those attending the training. The goals and objectives of each client will be recorded to ensure the training meets expectations. If there are some requests not covered in the agenda, where possible, the agenda will be adjusted to accommodate additional requests.
HSE: Safety for the class will be of the upmost importance. Sections of the training that require PPE or special attention will be reviewed. This will also include who to contact if any concerns arise.
Artificial Lift Review: This section focuses on the fundamentals of Artificial Lift and how fluid moves through a reservoir, how it behaves in a well and what characteristics of the well have the biggest impact on Artificial Lift. This may be a review from some, but ensuring the basics are correct is essential for the understanding of the balance of the training. Each form of Artificial Lift has advantages and disadvantages – it is important that the five main forms of Artificial Lift, including Rod Pump, PCP, Jet Pump, Gas Lift and ESP be reviewed to determine which form of lift is best suited for various reservoir conditions.
1. Pump: There are 8 elements of the pump that need to be designed including Stage Type, Number of Stages, Stage Material, Bearing Material, Bearing Spacing, Shaft Material, Housing Material and Construction Configuration. Each of these will be reviewed in detail to determine the best design for specific environments.
2. Intake: The intake portion will include standard intakes, gas separation devices and gas handling devices. This section will also include why gas is such a problem for ESP’s, how gas behaves in the well bore and true efficiency of gas separators.
3. Protector/Seal: The 5 main functions of a protector will be reviewed including Pressure Equalization, Barrier Protection, Thrust, Torque and Oil Reservoir for the motor. The three types of protectors will be reviewed including Positive Seal, Labyrinth and Bellows.
4. Motor: How the motor works will be reviewed from the basic principles of electricity. Without this understanding how downhole gauges/sensors operate, which is discussed in the following section will not be possible. Motor insulation, rating and temperature limitations will be reviewed.
5. Sensor: Downhole sensors are becoming more common as their functionality and reliability improve. This section will include how the gauge operates and what can cause premature failure of a gauge.
6. Cable: Worldwide failure rates indicate that approximately half of all ESP failures occur in the cable string. In this section each of the components of the cable including conductor, insulation, barrier, jacket and armor will be reviewed.
Tour of Plant: This will be the day where all of the tours shown in this brochure (except Day 7) will occur. There will be an HSE introduction where the rules of the plant tours will be explained, PPE will be fitted and the tour guides introduced.
Quality Labs: (PPE required —: safety shoes, safety glasses and ear plugs). Normally the reliability of any product can be correlated to the quality of the product. During this tour clients will be brought through the Quality Assurance Lab where the complete quality at source concept will be reviewed. Then a demonstration of how finished parts and all externally sourced parts are checked to ensure the quality is at acceptable standards
Foundry & Finishing: (PPE Required – Safety Shoes, Safety Glasses, Fume Mask and Headset with Communication). First part of this tour is a review of the foundry area which starts in the Green Sand Lab; where the quality of the cast parts are controlled including metallurgy, hardness, finish, etc. The foundry area will be toured where raw materials such as iron, zinc, nickel, chromium, etc. are melted and formed into impellers and diffusers. It will include a review and observation of the casting process from start to finish.
The second part of the tour goes through the finishing process where the parts from the foundry are finished into usable impellers and diffusers. This will also include the machines of heads, bases and motor potheads.
Equipment Assembly; Pump, Intake, Protector and Motor: (PPE Required – Safety Shoes, Safety Glasses, Ear Plugs, Gloves and Hard Hats). The tour will begin at the fundamental components of the ESP – the shaft and housing. The importance of straightness and how that is achieved will be reviewed. Then the assembly of the pump will be witnessed follow by a review of the parts of the gas separator and a witnessed gas separator assembly.
The complicated process of modular protector assembly will be witnessed reviewing the seals, bags, tubes, thrust bearings, etc.
Then a tour of the motors will occur which include the straightening of the motor, the laminations pressing for the stators – then one of the more spectacular steps in the assembly process – the motor winding area, following by the varnishing and rotor construction.
Testing Area: (PPE Required – Safety Shoes, Safety Glasses, Ear Plugs, Gloves and Hard Hats). Whether new or used, ESP equipment must be tested prior to installation. This will include a review of the test procedures, the witnessing of a horizontal pump test, a motor idle slant test, vertical well test – including the starting and stopping of equipment to show both speed and fluid expansion while the motor is in operation. * Pump shimming will also be demonstrated.
Equipment Review Continued & Hand Calculations
Feedthroughs: There are many different types of electrical wellhead feedthroughs or penetrators from simple packoff designs to complex wetmatable connectors. Each design will be reviewed with the strengths and weaknesses outlined. This will also include packer penetrators
Surface Equipment: There are usually only 4 main components to the surface equipment including the Transformer, Switchboard, VSD and Motor Controller. Each of these will be reviewed in detail, but extra time will be spent on the VSD. The issue of Harmonics, both back onto the power system and down to the ESP, is often not well understood – this section of the training will remove any mystery surrounding harmonics. Also, the benefits and drawbacks of different types of VSD’s will be reviewed.
ESP Design (Hand Calculations): The fundamentals of design work and a hand design will be conducted using two methods. The first design will use the traditional Bottoms Up Method that focuses on TDH and the second method will use the newer Top Down method that focuses on Pressure. This is important so that output for ESP software packages can be understood and explained.
Overview: There will be two Design Software packages reviewed. The first is a basic pump design software package that focuses on quick pump selection. This software can be used to perform basic evaluation on pump performance and comparison between different pump manufactures.
The second software package is Design Pro, one of the most advanced ESP design program available. During this training various ESP Design scenarios will be evaluated, the students will be provided with Laptops to use the software packages. The designs will become increasingly more difficult as familiarity with the software increases.
Software (continued) & Alternative ESP Installations
Overview: Designing using the software will continue on this day until the second design and diagnostic analysis is complete.
The standard method of installing an ESP is at the end of the tubing with the pump at the top and the motor at the bottom. However, there are alternative methods of installing ESP’s that allow for greater flexibility
The set ups reviewed will include Y-Tools, Auto Y-Tools, Auto Flow Subs, Auto Diverter Valves, Dual Completions - parallel, series, redundant and zonal; Coiled Tubing Deployed ESPs and finally how to use an ESP to dewater a gas well.
In this section Horizontal Pumping Systems will also be reviewed
Overview: (PPE Required - Safety Shoes, Safety Glasses, Lab Coat, Gloves and Hard Hats). Of the seven factors that influence the run life of an ESP, the installation and handling of the equipment is the one that is least controlled and can have as much impact on the runlife as the design of the ESP itself.
This day will be spent at the plant with some classroom time only a brief overview of how an ESP is installed, after which the class will assemble and run an ESP with instructions on the importance of each step of the installation procedure. An Oil Well Physical Simulator will be used to visualize differen operational conditions.
Overview: Class room training will include a cause and effect session where students are required to analyze what will happen to the ESP under varying condition so ESP performance can be interpreted.
This will be followed by why trouble shooting is so difficult and some steps that can be taken to help analyze data is such a way as to interpret what is happening downhole.
Following on will be a DIFA (Dismantle Inspection and Failure Analysis) discussion on how to get the most of the dismantle process to ensure that failures do not occur the same way.
Monitoring, Run Life and Questions
Overview: There are two critical areas when it comes to determining if monitoring will be successful – the first is the collection of quality data and the second is what is done with the data. The value of various data will be discussed and then a review of the stages available that allow for the highest production increase from that data.
The economics of ESP’s will be discussed focusing on the areas of runlife, incentive contacts, tendering processes and types of contracts that could be implemented.
This will also be a day where problems that attendees of the class can bring forward and an analysis of the data can be done as a group.
Quiz: Almost every day there will be a quiz to ensure that the learnings which occurred during each section have been attentively listened to. This is a learning technique as it has been shown that when testing is expected the retention rate is improved Training will conclude at the end of the second Thursday