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    Seismic Structural Interpretation Techniques

    Precise seismic interpretation is the fundamental tool for successfully locating oil and gas wells. Understanding of the techniques and methodologies of seismic section interpretation and of map contouring are therefore a must for achieving ideal well locations and for geo-steering correctly the well along the sub-surface environment.

    Seismic interpretation mapping is a time intensive endeavor. The specific objectives of this course concern the understanding and application of the main tools required for building-up fundamental skills in seismic interpretation. Methodologies for correct interpretation of seismic sections and the techniques applied in the architecture details of map contouring are discussed in connection with suites of exercises that apply these techniques in distinct geological and tectonic settings.

    In this one-week course, all aspects of interpretation seismology are addressed to; also the differences between hand-drawn interpretation and computer workstation mapping are discussed so that the principles of interpretation may be utilized to quality control computer section interpretation and computer mapping.

    The learning objectives of the course are attained with lectures in which all topics are discussed with clear imaged slides. These cover the principles of seismology and the handling of seismic velocities the most important seismic parameter. In addition, attendees are daily given hands-on mapping problems and exercises that cover geophysical exploration and development mapping. Seismic attributes applicable to reservoir characterization are discussed in several exercises of 2D and 3D seismic.

    The essential theory of seismic interpretation is covered with many practical examples that involve the distinct aspects of several geological and tectonic provinces relative to their hydrocarbon prospectivity.

    Practical workshops involve understanding of the main techniques in the seismic section interpretation and in precise structural contour mapping.

    Please note that this course does not utilise computers. The intent of the course is to understandand apply correct technical concepts.

    Day 1

    Introduction to Seismology Fundamentals: Reflection & Refraction Seismic Wave Propagation, Wave Equations, Poisson’s Ratio (exercise) History of the Seismic Reflection Method Wavelets, Reflection Coefficients, Convolution, Synthetic Seismogram Fourier Series, Fourier Transforms Time Domain & Frequency Domain

    Amplitude and Phase Spectrum Seismic Acquisition and Processing Summary Workflows Zero Phase and Minimum Phase Wavelets Normal and Reverse Polarities: Seismic Reflection Signatures Seismic Attributes Petroleum Geology Provinces Onshore vs Offshore Provinces Worldwide Distribution of Petroleum Basins Structural & Stratigraphic Traps Seismic Reflection Sections: Parameters Stacking, Filtering and Deconvolution Unmigrated and Migrated Sections, Dip & Strike risks associated with stacking Seismic Ties, Time Maps Four Way Dip Closures, Fault Closures Pitfalls and traps

    Day 2

    Contouring Exercise # 1: Anticline Discussion of Contouring Rules

    Contouring Exercise # 2: Rifted Fault Blocks Significance of Time Maps Depth Conversion Exercise

    Contouring Exercise # 3: Compressional Tectonics Hand Contouring vs Computer Contouring

    Discussion Mapping Exercise # 1: Basement High Mapping Techniques – Discussion of misties Mapping

    Discussion Mapping Exercise # 2: Carbonate Build-Up Seismic Velocities: Average, Interval, NMO, RMS. Dix Equation Depth Conversion Techniques

    Day 3

    Seismic Data – Onshore/Offshore 2D and 3D Interpretation Parameters Seismic Data Libraries

    Softwares Interpretative Analyses of CDP gathers, NMO - Stack, F-K Filtering Deconvolution and Migration

    Exercises AVO Amplitude Variation with Offset – Interpretation Exercise Pre-Stack Time Migration (PSTM)

    Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM) Deepwater Datasets – Interpretation Strike-slip tectonics analogue experiment

    Day 4

    Regional Interpretation Mapping Interpretation Comparisons of South Atlantic Regional Lines

    Exercises Salt Tectonics

    Interpretation Exercise Evaluation of Prospects Extensional tectonics analogue experiment

    Mapping Exercise # 3: Rift Basin – Normal Fault Blocks

    Day 5

    Reverse Faults Paleo-Highs and Paleo-Lows

    Palinspastic Reconstructions

    Mapping Exercise # 4: Compressional Tectonics Thrust tectonics analogue experiment

    Final Exam and Course Evaluation

    All petroleum professionals, in particular geophysicists, geologists, petrophysicists, reservoir management, and drilling engineers.

    Basic reservoir geology and Geophysics

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