Fault Seal Analysis in Exploration and Development: Theory and Application - 3 DAY
The objective of this course is to introduce concepts and methods in trap and seal analysis particularly as related to fault characterization including fault mapping and fault seal as applies to cross-fault flow resistance to geoscientists (geologists and geophysicists) and petroleum engineers so that they can apply these principals in their exploration and development projects. The lecture course introduces fundamentals and advanced concepts for faulting and flow for the prediction of fault behavior in subsurface traps. The concepts discussed in the lecture course are applied in simple exercises and related to the capabilities in the Petrel structural and fault analysis module to reinforce the technology.
The three days will be separated into a 2 day course on basic workflows with paper exercises to reinforce the concepts and a 1-day course using a data set of a case study to be analyzed on the workstation using the Structural and Fault Analysis Module in Petrel.
- Introduction to fault seal and trap analysis.
- Trap and fault geometry concepts and estimating closures and initial seal risk.
Exercise: Trap geometry and controls on hydrocarbon contacts.
- Methods and concepts on correctly characterizing faults and throw distributions. Theory and methods for evaluating correct fault linkages.
Exercise: Creating fault throw and separation maps.
- Review of fault rock types based on the undeformed host rock lithology.
- Basic principles of flow through porous media including permeability and threshold pressure.
Exercise: Estimating hydrocarbon gradients, capillary pressure and threshold pressure for reservoir and fault rock.
- Introduction to fault mapping.
Exercise: Generating juxtaposition Allan diagrams.
- Discussion on estimating sealing capacity from the threshold pressure for range of fault rock types.
Exercise: Hydrocarbon column height exercise.
- Review of methods for estimating the clay distribution across a fault surface including clay smear factor, shale gouge ratio and effective shale gouge ratio.
- Discussion of techniques for calibrating relationships between fault rocks.
Exercise: Estimating the clay smear factor and shale gouge ratio along faults.
- Triangle diagrams for estimating fault seal.
- Risking and uncertainty.
- Validation of methods and summary of course concepts.
- Introduction to Structural and Fault Analysis Module
- - Introduction to exercise that follows the workflow from the previous 3 days where a similar exercise is done on paper.
- - This section of the course is designed to apply the fault seal principles in determining the sealing capacity for fault seal.
Introduction to fault mapping and trap and seal characterization.
Fault geometry mapping.
Fault Rock Properties
Faults in simulation
The course is relevant to geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers.
Although no prerequisites are required for this course, the concepts are more suited to geoscientists with experience in mapping and evaluating exploration and development projects. The software course material does require a good working knowledge of Petrel