Rock Typing and the Reservoir Characterisation of Carbonates
Carbonates form a major oil and gas play around the world; however their complex deposition, texture, pore and fracture network contribute to the difficulties of modelling their heterogeneity. The course describes the different types, controlling factors, geometries and facies of Carbonates specifically looking at pinnacle and platform reefs, which are characteristic of Asia and the Middle East. The connection between porosity and permeability are fundamental to the success of understanding a carbonate reservoir. Some of the difficulties of understanding log data is due to microporosity, fractures and karst development inherent in the formation. Some of the key petrophysical measurements will be discussed and how to interpret the borehole images associated with carbonates. As well as looking at different methods of rock typing and best practices to building a static carbonate model.
The Origin of Carbonates
- The controls on the types of carbonates are discussed and the evolution of the fossil record and their relationship to sea level change.
- The different types of carbonate depositional systems and platforms and the facies they produce.
- Look at karst and fracturing in carbonate systems
Identifying Different Carbonates from Core and Borehole images
- Learn how to classify carbonates from thin section, core and mud logs
- Identify electrofacies from borehole images
- Incorporate important core data such as MICP data, porosity and permeability as well as thin sections.
- Utilization of the theory of Representative Elementary Volume (REV) to upscale data from micron to metric scale.
- Discuss how fractures and bioturbation influence porosity and permeability
Rock Typing Carbonates from Log Data
- Look at the different techniques of rock typing from Lorentz plots, Winland-R35, Flow Zone Indicators ect.
- Understand how to integrate different logs such as NMR, ECS, Sonic and Borehole Images and validate with core.
- Understand the difference between facies, rock type, flow units, flow capacity and storage capacity.
Pinnacle Reefs – Examples from reservoirs of SE Asia
- Understand the origin of Pinnacle Reefs
- Look at the Facies of pinnacle and patch reefs
- Characterization of Framework Corals and Coral Talus
- Impact of fractures and karst on the reservoir
- Discussion on the importance of Core, advance petrophysical tools and image data in pinnacle reef facies analysis.
- Review best practice of logging, rock typing and interpreting and building a static model.
Platform Carbonates – Examples from the Middle East
- Understand the origin and development of Platform Carbonates
- Review the types of facies and facies association in platform reefs
- Learn hope to identify different carbonate facies and facies associations
- Understand the impact of Bioturbation, fractures and karst on the reservoir
- Review best practice of logging, rock typing and interpreting and building a static model
Carbonate depositional environments
Carbonate facies and facies associations
Rock Typing carbonate Facies
Understanding the impact of fractures on the reservoir
Petrophysicists, Geologists and Reservoir Engineers with some Oil & Gas experience
A proficient knowledge in Geology, petrophysics or reservoir engineering, with a basic knowledge of Formation Evaluation preferable