• Class and Course

    Advanced Formation Evaluation in Carbonates

    The focus of this course will be advanced formation evaluation and interpretation in carbonates.  A strong emphasis will be placed on pore geometry and evaluating the parameters that effect carbonates such as “m”, “n”, and microporosity.  This course includes 1-2 hours daily of workshop examples that will help participants with their future work in carbonates reservoir environments.

    Participants will learn about the geology of carbonates and the principles and effects of dolomitization.  The physics and application of a select number of logging tools with special application for carbonates interpretations will be covered.  Specific tools that will be covered during the duration of this course include Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging, NMR scanner, acoustic measurements, acoustic scanner imaging, and borehole imaging to quantify vugs and fractures.  Participants will also learn about pore geometry and flow units, including capillary pressure measurements, J-Factor applications, and petro-rock typing. 

    Day 1

    Carbonate Geology and Dolomitization

    • Carbonate Geology and deposition
    • Dolomitization
    • Nuclear magnetic resonance and NMR-Scanner
    • Acoustic measurements and the acoustic scanner

    Day one will cover carbonate geology and overview of diagenesis.  Participants will learn about deposition, nuclear magnetic resonance, and NMR-Scanner.  Acoustic measurements and the acoustic scanner will also be covered.

    Day 2

    Logging and Formation Applications

    • Borehole imaging using micro-resistivity and ultrasonic imaging
    • Physics of neutron logging using pulsed neutron to give a sigma log
    • The physics of dielectric logging and the dielectric scanner
    • Variable-M and the formation factor applications

    The second day will focus on logging and formation applications.  Borehole imaging using micro-resistivity and ultrasonic imaging will be covered.  Participants will also learn about the physics of neutron logging using pulsed neutron to give a sigma log.  They day will end with participants learning about the physics of dielectric logging, the dielectric scanner, variable-M, and the formation factor applications.

    Day 3

    Wettability, Vugs, and Dual Porosity

    • Wettability and the variable-N
    • Effect of Vugs and fractures on resistivity measurements
    • Dual Porosity: MacroPorosity and MicroPorosity: Quantitative evaluation of the dual porosity in carbonates

    Wettability, vugs, and dual porosity will be the main focuses on the third day.  Participants will get the chance to learn about wettability and the variable-N, as well as the effects of vugs and fractures on resistivity measurements.  Dual porosity, Macro-porosity, and micro-porosity, and the quantitative evaluation of the dual porosity in carbonates.

    Day 4

    Permeability Estimations and Flow Units

    • Permeability estimations in carbonates
    • Connectivity Theory: a new approach for interpretations in carbonates without the use of the Archie Equation
    • Flow units and the Lorenz plots

    Day four will teach participants about permeability estimation in carbonates.  The Connectivity Theory, a new approach for interpreting carbonates without the use of the Archie, will also be discussed.  The day will end with discussions over flow units and the Lorenz plots.

    Day 5

    Capillary Pressure and Rock Types

    • Capillary pressure from core analysis 
    • Capillary pressure from the NMT T2 conversion
    • J-Function
    • Rock types: Winland and the ADNOC Pore Model

    The last day will cover capillary pressure from core analysis and the NMT T2 conversion.  Participants will also learn about the J-Function and several different rock types, as well as Winland and the ADNOC function.

    This course is intended for petrophysicists, reservoir engineers, and geologists who work in carbonate reservoir environments.


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