• Class and Course

    Applied Capillary Pressure and Saturation Height Modeling

    This is an applied course on how to use capillary pressure data to help the user understand what is controlling the fluid distribution, the importance of pore geometry and why water saturation is not an accident.

    Case studies and workshops on bi-modal carbonates are used to show the challenges associated with interpretating fluid distributions.  To understand many carbonates it is necessary to examine capillary pressure, HPMI, lab NMR, thin-sections and SEM images.

    Both clastics and carbonate examples and core-log integration workshops are used show how simple saturation height models can be applied in fields to study many parameters as fluid contacts, hydro-carbon column height and help you determine the dominant hyrdocarbon-water contact.

    A large number of workshops are used in this course so the participants can gain a hands-on experience for interpreting capillary pressure data.

    Day 1

    Example Delivery Outline (This course can be customized to fit the expectations of the participants):

    1. Course Expectations and Participants Complete a Pre-Course Technical Assessment

    2. Discssion on Why Capillary Pressure Is Important......

    Chapter 1 - Pore Geometry and Wettability

    1. Using Petropgraphic Thin-Sections to Explore Pore-Geometry

    2. Using Scanning Electron Microscopic Images to Explore Pore-Geometry

    3. Using Lab Methods to Explore Pore Geometry

    4. Workshop 1 - Basic Pore Geometry

    On the first day participants will learn the importance of capillary pressure and its practical applications.  Pore geometry will be discussed using petrographic thin-sections and SEM methods.  Wettability will be in introduced and the day will end with a practical pore geometry workshop.

    Day 2

    Chapter 2  - Introduction To Drainage and Imibibition

    1. Applications of Drainage Capillary Pressure Analysis (Contacts and FWL)

    2. Applications of Imibibition Capillary Pressure Analysis (Production Trends and Residual Saturation)


    Chapter 3 - Lab Methods to Determine Capillary Pressure

    Day 2 will focus on the drainiage and imibiibition processes associated with establishing fluid saturations. Practical applications of determining the free water level (FWL) and immisicible fluid-contacts will be discuseed and demonstrated by using workshops and example.  Common laboratory methods will also be addressed.   

    Day 3

    1. Porous Plate Method

    2. Centrifuge Method

    3. High Pressure Mercury Injection

    4. Other


    Chapter 4 - Determining Pore Throat Radius from Lab Data and Estimating Pore Throat Radius from k and phi


    Day 3 will cover more specific information concerning lab methods and data acquisition.  Common lab data analysis will focus on lab-based pore throat radius and techniques to predict pore throat radius from porosity and permeability. Participants will complete a detailed workshop using these techniques.

    Day 4

    Chapter 5 -  Converting from lab data to height above free water


    Chapter 6 - Common Applications (Thomeer and Leverett J)


    Chapter 7 - Introduction to Petrophysical Rock Types


    Day 4 will cover show how to convert lab measured capillary pressure data to reservoir conditions to determine height above free water, seal capacity and initial water saturation.  Petrophysical rock types will be determined from high pressure mercury injection porosimetry data using semi-log, cartesian and incremental saturation intrusion plots combined with several other quality control data analysis graphs.  Participants will complete a detailed workshop using these techniques.

    Day 5

    Chapter 8 - Applied Saturation Height Model Using Petrophysical Rock Types

    Well Analysis and Reservoir Evaluation Workshop

    Chapter 9 - NMR and Core-Log Integration(optional)

    Participants Complete a Post Course Technical Assessment 

    Course Wrap-Up

    Day 5 will cover show how to create a customized saturation height capillary model based on petrophysical rock types.  The SHM can be based on Leverett, Gunter/Smart or a Modified Thomeer method. 

    Any geologist, petrophysicist or engineer that needs to understand fluid contacts, the free water level and why water saturation is not an accident.

    1. Pore Geometry and Wettability

    2. Drainage and Imibibition Capillary Pressure Data

    3. Fluid contacts and Free Water Level

    4. Measurement Methods and Options

    5. Converting from Lab Conditions to Height

    6. Introduction to Petrophysical Rock Types

    7. Saturation Height Models to Predict Saturation Distribution

    Participants should have a basic understanding of using Excel to make calculations and plots.  All the exercises and workshops will be completed in Excel.

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