• Class and Course

    Applied Production Logging and Reservoir Monitoring

    This is a course that covers all aspects of production Logging and Reservoir Monitoring:

    Production Logging:

    • Standard Production Logging Tools
    • High Technology Logging tools designed for Horizontal wells
    • Spinner calibrations
    • Slippage velocities
    • Fluid velocities
    • Holdup measurement
    • Estimating of fluid production (water/oil/gas) in single phase, two phase and 3- phase
    • Production Evaluations in horizontal and highly deviated wells.

    Reservoir Monitoring

    • Theoretical overview of Pulsed Neutron Logging (PNL)
    • Pulsed Neutron Generator
    • PNL Capture Mode
    • PNL Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) Mode
    • The new PNX (multi-shot inelastic mode).
    • Cased Hole Formation Resistivity
    • Slim-hole Induction Log

    This course teaches you applied techniques for production logging and reservoir monitoring.  You will learn to design a data acquisition program to evaluate wellbore or reservoir behavior based on field development objectives.   

    Day 1


    • Nomenclature used in cased hole data acquisition.
    • Depth Control in Cased Hole.
    • Well head pressure control.
    • Why Run Production Logs? Overview:
      • Outline of the various processes used.
      • Determine Productivity Index (PI) of oil wells and the injectivity of water wells, zone by zone.
      • 2 Phase flow rates: Water/Oil, Oil/Gas, Water/Gas.
      • Three Phase Flow
      • Interzone crossflow
    • Inflow Production Performance of oil and gas wells:

      • Productivity Index (PI) of oil wells.
      • Absolute Open Flow (AOF) Potential in gas wells.
      • The effects of skin.
      • Slippage velocities: theory and empirical charts applications.
      • Various techniques to measure fluid velocities- A wide range of applications:
        • Spinners: inline spinner, full bore spinner and micro-spinner.
        • Oxygen activation to measure water velocity.
        • Radioactive tracer to measure oil and water velocities.
        • Phase velocity log to measure using gadolinium to measure oil and water velocities.
        • Gas bubble velocity from the optical sensor (GHOST).
    • Spinner calibrations in multi-phase flow regimes:
      • The principle of spinner calibrations
      • Applications for quality control.
      • Importance of zone-by-zone calibrations.
      • Effects of fluid densities on the spinner calibrations.

    1-hour workshop on spinner calibrations and Productivity Index (PI).

    Day 2


    • Holdup measurements in 3 phase flows:

      • Various tools and their applications.
      • Borehole differential pressure.
      • Capacitance: measuring of fluid dielectric.
      • Electric sensors (Flowview).
      • Optical sensors (Ghost).
    • Equations applied in multi-phase flow regimes:
      • Conservation of momentum equation to define the spinner velocity.
      • Reynolds Number.
      • Unit integrations to compute production.
    • Single phase flow:
      • Production Logging using two chokes under flowing conditions
      • Spinner calibrations to convert rotations per second of spinner to flow rates.
      • Determine the productivity Index (PI) for any selected zone. Zone selection is not needed before data acquisition.
    • Uneven Depletion and resulting Crossflow:
      • Causes of uneven depletion.
      • Modelling of uneven depletion.
      • Basic Production Logging
      • Spinner Calibrations.
    • Using 2 chokes to estimate Productivity Index.
    • Estimating Productivity index (PI) and reservoir pressure (Pr) for each zone
    • Estimating the inter-zone crossflow caused by uneven depletion

    1-hour workshop on single phase flow and uneven depletion and crossflow.


    Day 3


    • 2-phase and 3-phase Flow.
    • Production interpretations in 2-phase flow (oi/water, oil/gas, water/gas).
    • Running Production logs using two flowing chokes.
    • Data used: Spinner, 1 hold-up measurement, Oxygen activation, phase velocity log, gas bubble speed.
    • Production log interpretations in horizontal wells.
      • Data acquisitions in horizontal wells.
      • Zonation.
      • Spinner calibrations.
    • Why Run Reservoir Monitoring Logs
    • Covers the wide applications of reservoir monitoring logs to estimate changes
    • in water/oil/gas saturations with time behind casing.
    • Defines water salinity behind the casing.
    • Nuclear physics of Neutron interaction with the formation. This cover:

        • Pulse Neutron Generator.
        • High Energy Neutron interaction (inelastic).
        • Gamma-Ray spectroscopy.
        • Low energy neutron interaction (capture mode

    1-hour workshop Production Log Interpretations in horizontal wells

    Day 4


    • Reservoir Monitoring Tools:
      • Pulsed Neutron Logging (PNL) Tools- theory and applications of neutron interaction with the formation. This is used to obtain Neutron Capture cross-section and the Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) ratio in the formation.
      • Formation Resistivity (Rt) measurement behind conductive casing.
      • Slim induction log applications in non-conductive (plastic, fibreglass) casings.
      • Scintillation Detectors: Various types and their characteristics.
      • Neutron capture mode (Σ) interpretation:
        • Interpretation process.
        • Graphical solution.
        • Estimating Water salinity in 100% water zone.
        • Estimating water salinity in zones swept by water flood.
        • Quick look graphical interpretations of water saturation (Sw).
      • Neutron inelastic for Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) logging applications
        • C/O data acquisition.
        • The various graphical solution to borehole compensations
        • C/O applications to obtain Sw independent of water salinity. 

     1-hour workshop on C/O and Σ log evaluations.

    Day 5


    • Cased Hole Formation Resistivity behind steel casing:

      • Tool design, theory, configuration and Limitations.
      • Examples of field applications.
    • Formation Resistivity behind non-conductive (plastic, fibre glass) casing:
      • Principle of the induction log- slim hole induction (2”).
      • Examples of field applications.
    • Modern High Technology PNL logging tool: PULSAR

    • New Generation of PNL tools- Pulsar.
    • New and more powerful Pulsed Neutron Generator.
      • Much improved scintillation detectors by few orders of magnitude.
      • Evaluation of Total Carbon (TC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC).

    1-hour workshop on Cased hole resistivity evaluations.

    This is a very important course that covers the two most important topics after well completions; namely production logging and reservoir monitoring. This course is of vital importance to Reservoir engineers, production engineers and Petrophysicists. The participants will benefit from the workshop sessions covering over 20 field examples.

    Professionals with geosciences background and some 2+ years of exposure to field production.

    Greater than 2 years of experience interpreting reservoir monitoring logs is recommended.  You are encouraged to bring difficult log examples for in-class discussion and interpretation.

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