• Class and Course

    Applied Reservoir Simulation with Eclipse

    This 5-days course is designed to introduce the participants to the theory and practice of reservoir simulation. Participants will learn about the funda-mentals of reservoir simulation, the development of simulation programs, and how to select the proper model for a simulation study. This course also covers data preparation, grid design, calibration of the reservoir model, forecasting of future performance, and interpretation of simulation results.

    Participants will also be acquainted with several advanced topics including: pseudo-relative permeability and capillary pressure, understanding the contemporary reservoir simulation practice, waterflooding concepts and its applications, and the Classical and computed aided history matching approaches. Upscaling and simulation techniques will also be discussed.

    The course uses the Eclipse* simulator and Petrel* RE pre and postprocessor for workshops and hands-on exercises. These tools demonstrate key factors in reservoir simulation and the use of simulators to investigate various reservoir engineering and reservoir management principle

    Day 1

    Fundamentals of reservoir simulation and Numerical model and solutions

    • Introduction to reservoir simulation and its benefits
    • Traditional reservoir engineering methods and their direct relationships with reservoir simulation
    • Minimum data required to run a simulation study
    • Mass balance of a single phase in a control volume representative of the porous medium
    • Formulating the differential equation that governs the flow of a single-phase fluid in a porous medium by combining Darcy’s law with the mass conservation equation
    • Generalizing the flow equations to include the simultaneous interactive flow of three phases (fully compositional model). The special case of the black oil model, which was also presented in considerable detail, was considered
    • Description of the process of discretizing the flow equations to create the finite difference equations (simulator equations)
    • Different formulations (IMPES, fully implicit, AIM) used to evaluate the spatial differences on the simulator equation
    • Linearization of the simulator equations and the methods used to solve the simulator equations


    Day 2

    Implementation of fine grid and coarse grid models in reservoir simulation

    • Discussion on basic use of single well simulation models
    • Effect that grid orientation has on simulator results and the approaches to reduce it
    • Importance of vertical layering on the dynamic behavior of reservoir fluids
    • What vertical equilibrium is and in what reservoir situation it occurs
    • Pseudofunctions and why they are more accurate than using laboratory measured relative permeabilities (rock curves) when large gridblocks are used.
    • Well modeling in reservoir simulation.
    Day 3

    Classical history matching and Waterflooding concepts and aquifers

    • History matching and its objectives
    • Type of variables you can change in history matching and the effects they have on the simulated history
    • History matching process and prediction of reservoir performance.
    • Computer aided history matching
    • Discription of factors that affect the water fractional flow
    • Hysteresis of capillary pressure and relative permeability curves
    • Different types of waterflooding patterns used in fields
    • Various types of aquifer models and the effect of a large or small Fetkovich aquifer on a reservoir


    Day 4

    Data preparation/sources and overview of the simulation process/types of simulators

    • Fluid and rock data required in a reservoir simulation study and description of  the sources of reservoir data
    • Hysteresis and its effect in reservoir displacements
    • Reasons why you might or might not wish to simulate a reservoir
    • The steps involved in a simulation study
    • Types of simulators available and the type of problems they are used for.


    Day 5

    Introduction to Eclipse and application of reservoir simulation to a typical history matching study

    • Introduction to the numerical reservoir simulator Eclipse and its basic and advanced options
    • Eclipse input data file sections and how Eclipse works
    • Variograms and how they are used in geostatistics
    • UMBB Case study : steps used to conduct a reservoir simulation study
    • Discription and application  of ten Golden Rules for Simulation Engineerspresented by Khalid Aziz [42].


    Reservoir engineers, geoscientists, and other technically trained individuals introduced in reservoir engineering who are interested in learning the fundamentals of reservoir simulation applied to hands-on exercises using Eclipse

    • Overview of reservoir simualtion
    • Fundamentals of reservoir simulation
    • Numerical model and solutions
    • IMPES and Fully Implicit solution methods and the effects
    • Implementation of fine grid and coarse grid models
    • Waterflooding concepts and aquifers
    • Classical and computed aided history matching approaches
    • Data preparation/sources and analysis
    • Introduction to simulation process/types of simulators
    • Introduction to Eclipse and Petrel Reservoir Engineering workflow
    • Application of reservoir simulation to a typical  history matching study
    • Contemporary reservoir simulation practice -Ten golden rules for simulation engineers

    Reservoir engineering background

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