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This course provides a detailed overview of common clastic sedimentary systems and how the reservoir characteristics of the resulting deposits are controlled by the combination of their depositional environment and sequence stratigraphic setting. A good understanding of these key controls on the distribution, size and shape of clastic reservoir and non-reservoir rocks as well as their internal properties, is of fundamental importance to sound reservoir characterization and consequently to Exploration & Production decision-making. This applies throughout the hydrocarbon resource life-cycle, all the way from exploration, through appraisal, to development and eventually abandonment.
By the end of this 5-day course, participants will be able :
Full set of viewgraph material used & copy of: Coe, A.L., (Ed.), 2003, The sedimentary record of sea-level change, Cambridge University Press, pp 288 (subject to availability!)
Clastic depositional systems
Course participants will gain a sound understanding of how the large-scale reservoir architecture and the internal reservoir property variation of a clastic sedimentary deposit are controlled by the combination of its stratigraphic setting and depositional origin. Secondly how this controls fluid flow in subsurface reservoirs. This overview is followed by a review of different fluviatile deposits and their reservoir characteristics. Emphasis is placed on how the macro- and meso-scale reservoir heterogeneity that typifies many fluviatile reservoirs, impacts on recovery efficiency and well numbers.Day 2
Clastic depositional systems
The module on fluviatile reservoirs is concluded with an exercise that integrates seismic, core, log, and production data. Lacustrine systems are commonly important both as reservoirs and as source rock systems. Lacustrine systems are also natural laboratories to illustrate sequence stratigraphic principles due to the rapidity of base-level variations as compared to open marine depositional systems. Lacustrine ‘source rock factories’ are placed in their plate tectonic and climatic settings. Deltaic sedimentation: sediment supply vs wave action vs tidal action as controls on delta type and shape.Day 3
Clastic depositional systems
Reservoir characteristics of deltaic and coastal depositional systems with emphasis on macro- and meso-scale reservoir architecture and internal reservoir property variation. Mass-flow mechanisms [e.g. turbidity currents) in deepwater settings and the resulting depositional systems (e.g. slope channels & basin-floor fans) and the reservoir characteristics of different turbidite deposits. Salt and/or clay diapirism as a key control on sea-floor topography and the effect of that topography on turbidite deposition. Why the biogenic origin of carbonates makes the petrophysical characterisation of carbonate reservoirs more complex than for clastic reservoir rocks, and why this results in much greater uncertainty in reservoir models and volumetric estimates.Day 4
Sea level [=‘base level’] variations at different spatial and temporal scales are the key control on how and where sediments accumulate in a basin. A sequence stratigraphic analysis of a sedimentary sequence must therefore be based on a sound understanding of the different processes that drive both relative and eustatic sea-level changes. Use and abuse of the global sea level curve [‘Haq curve’].
Sequence stratigraphy and seismic stratigraphy: origin of these tools to analyze sedimentary basin-fills. How ‘High-stand’ and ‘Low-stand’ sea levels affect the deposition of sandy reservoir rocks, shale-rich seals and organic-rich source rocks within a basin. Why clastic deepwater turbidites typically form during a ‘Low-stand’ sea-level, whereas carbonate deepwater turbidites typically form during a ‘High-stand’ sea-level.Day 5
Course summary and review of key technical aspects
The Western Interior Sea Way as a natural stratigraphic laboratory, Walther’s Law, and ‘Genetic stratigraphy’ vs ‘Sequence stratigraphy’.
To re-inforce the participants’ learning an extensive summary of key technical messages as presented in the course is given. This complements the daily review of the participants’ own learning points from the previous day. The course is concluded with the participants taking a multiple choice questionnaire test.
By prior Client request the results of the end-of-course test may at be compared with the scores of an optional pre-course test.
Petroleum geoscientists and petroleum engineers in the initial phase of their EP career, who need to be fully conversant with sedimentology and stratigraphy as key tools in the Oil- and Gas Industry
Awareness of the basics of soft rock geology and knowledge of subsurface technical workflows
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