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ECLIPSE Simulation of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

This course is designed for reservoir engineers involved in the evaluation and management of naturally fractured reservoirs (NFRs). In particular, it is intended for reservoir engineers who perform activities related to understanding NFR behavior and who use numerical simulation models for history matching and prediction.

The course encourages a collaborative approach to NFR modeling using various subsurface disciplines and applications. The course covers basic and advanced numerical simulation aspects including fracture modeling concepts. It also promotes an understanding of the activities that precede building a numerical model, such as, generating and upscaling a discrete fracture network (DFN) and numerical well testing to confirm reservoir behavior and to reduce uncertainty.

You build a fractured reservoir model from scratch in Petrel. This exercise will help you to better understand the role that petrophysics, structural geology, and geomechanics concepts play in creating the dynamic simulation model that you will be using.

Several methods exist for modeling NFR dynamic behavior. The method used depends on the objective of the numerical simulation. The dual porosity concept is commonly used in hydrology and the oil and gas industry to represent flow in fractured media. In this course, you learn about the background, concepts, and assumptions of the dual porosity model. In the exercises, you run numerical well test cases and compare the results against dual porosity and equivalent single porosity models.

The NFR recovery mechanisms are discussed mainly in the context of the dual porosity model. In addition, you learn about advanced modeling options including the extension to multi-porosity models. Following this section is a discussion on dynamic calibration and history matching applications in NFRs. The course concludes with a discussion and exercises on applying dual porosity extensions to model coal bed methane (CBM) and shale gas reservoirs.

Day 1

Module 1 Fundamentals of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
Lesson 1: Introduction to naturally fractured reservoirs
Lesson 2: Definitions and classification of fractures and fractured reservoirs
Lesson 3: Fracture properties
Lesson 4: Characterization of fractured reservoirs

Module 2 Fractured reservoir modelling
Lesson 1: Overview of fractured reservoir modelling
Exercise 1: use Petrel to analyse and model fractures
Lesson 2: Fracture network generation
Exercise 2: Generate a fracture network
Lesson 3: Discrete fracture network upscaling
Exercise 3: Upscale and calibrate DFNs

Day 2

Module 3: Well Testing in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
Lesson 1: Pressure response in non-fractured reservoirs
Exercise 1: Standard well test interpretation to evaluate absolute permeability
Lesson 2: Pressure response in Wells connected to a conductive fault / hydraulic fractures
Exercise 2: Comparison of pressure response in radial and linear flow
Lesson 3: The Warren and Root’s model for Flow in fractured reservoirs
Lesson 4: Flow regimes and the diagnostic plot
Exercise 3: fractured reservoir evaluation by well testing

Module 4: Numerical simulation of flow in fractured reservoirs
Lesson 1: Types of numerical simulation models for fractured media
Lesson 2: Flow equations for single porosity models
Lesson 3: Flow equations for dual porosity models
Lesson 4: Dual porosity implementation in ECLIPSE
Lesson 5: Facilities to model partially fractured reservoirs

Exercise 1: Convert a single porosity case to dual porosity
Lesson 6: Petrel RE interface to define DP / DPDP simulation cases
Exercise 2: Compare pressure response in explicit fracture models
Exercise 3: Compare pressure response in explicit fracture vs an equivalent dual porosity model

Day 3

Module 5: Recovery mechanisms in fractured reservoirs
Lesson 1: Expansion
Lesson 2: Viscous displacement
Lesson 3: Spontaneous imbibition
Lesson 4: Gravity drainage / imbibition
Lesson 5: Molecular diffusion
Lesson 6: Relevant ECLIPSE keywords
Exercise 1: Viscous displacement sensitivity study
Exercise 2: Compare spontaneous imbibition in explicit fractures and dual porosity models
Exercise 3: Compare gas gravity drainage models
Activate diffusion in a compositional dual porosity model

Day 4

Module 6: Advanced options for naturally fractured reservoir simulation
Lesson 1: Integrated capillary pressure option
Exercise 1: Activate the integrated capillary pressure option
Lesson 2: Multi-porosity option
Procedure 1: Activate the multi-porosity option in ECLIPSE 100
Procedure 2: Activate the multi-porosity option in ECLIPSE 300
Exercise 2: Activate the multi-porosity option for cases in Petrel.

Lesson 3: Triple porosity
Lesson 4: The conductive faults model in ECLIPSE 300
Exercise 3: Define conductive faults in Petrel

Day 5

Module 7: Calibration and history matching of fractured reservoir models
Lesson 1: Dynamic calibration of fracture data
Procedure 1: Define a workflow in Petrel to report KH for all specified wells
Procedure 2: import observed PLT data in Petrel
Lesson 2: History matching with preserved geological consistency
Exercise 1: Run a computer assisted history matching of a dual porosity case
Exercise 2: Determine the influence of geological priors

Module 8: Unconventional reservoirs
Lesson 1: Coal Bed Methane reservoir models
Exercise 1: Run simulation models for primary and enhanced CBM recovery using Petrel RE
Exercise 2: Gas desorption and diffusion processes with instant and time-dependent sorption options
Exercise 3: use the Palmer-Mansoori rock compaction model
Lesson 2: Shale gas
Exercise 4: Export a simulation case with multiple porosity for shale gas
Exercise 5: Experiment with heterogeneous rock adsorption properties
Lesson 3: Hydraulic fractures
Exercise 6: Represent hydraulic fractures on Tartan grids
Exercise 7: create hydraulic fractures using LGR

Learning activity mix

Reservoir engineers with experience in ECLIPSE who are interested in learning numerical simulation of fractured reservoirs using ECLIPSE simulators

Fundamentals of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

Fractured reservoir modelling

Numerical simulation of flow in fractured reservoirs

Well Testing in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs 

Recovery mechanisms in fractured reservoirs

Advanced options for naturally fractured reservoir simulation

Calibration and history matching of fractured reservoir models

Unconventional reservoirs

Experience with ECLIPSE single porosity simulations

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