• Class and Course

    Fundamentals of Groundwater Contamination

    • Provide the basic knowledge of groundwater flow in the subsurface.
    • Provide the basic concepts of water quality and groundwater contamination.
    • Participants will learn about groundwater occurrence and importance.
    • Aquifer types and groundwater flow dynamics from recharge to discharge.
    • Quantifying groundwater flow and estimating groundwater reserves.
    • Determining aquifer parameters, water well design principles, and basics of well hydraulics.
    • Scope and use of groundwater models for practical purposes
    • Natural groundwater quality and principles of contaminant transport and common remediation techniques.

    Day 1

    Definition of Terms and Principles of Groundwater Flow in the subsurface:

    • Water Cycle; importance of groundwater; water scarcity
    • Water occurrence in the subsurface: saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones: definitions and water movement
      • circulation media: porous, fractured, karstic environments and significance to water flow
      • aquifers, aquitards, aquicludes and aquifuges
      • unconfined, confined, leaky-confined aquifers; perched groundwater
    • Definition of aquifer hydraulic parameters: permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, storage terms, porosities, hydraulic gradients
    • Groundwater flow regime:
      • regional to local flow systems, driving forces; active versus ‘fossil’ groundwater
      • Surface Water – Groundwater Interaction: rivers, springs, wetlands, seepage paces
      • Water Budgets and recharge estimate
    • Water well design concepts and capture zone concepts (drawdown, radius of influence, steady state versus transient behavior).
    • Summary and discussion
    Day 2

    Quantifying groundwater flows

    • Measuring groundwater elevations: definition of water heads, pressure head and elevation heads, basic design of monitoring wells/piezometers
    • Flow Direction: Potentiometric maps and flow nets; effects of anisotropy and heterogeneities on flow patterns
    • Effects of pumping on flow field and typical hydrological impacts: reduction of river base flows, flows to wetlands, well interference
    • Groundwater behavior in near shore environments: tidal oscillations, saltwater intrusion, density driven flow
    • Groundwater flow quantification: Darcy’s Law, 3-D groundwater flow equation, typical simplifications used in groundwater hydrology and pumping test analysis
    • Example calculations of groundwater flows and seepage velocity
    • Summary and discussion
    Day 3

    Water Quality and Monitoring

    • Natural groundwater quality:
      • major ions and graphical representation methods (Stiff, Piper, Schoeller and other hydrochemistry graphs)
    • Typical natural contaminants:
      • Arsenic, Iron/manganese, dissolved radioactive elements, salinity, saltwater intrusion
    • - Industrial contamination:
      • sources, typical compounds, contamination plumes and typical remediation techniques, importance of prevention versus remediation
      • Fate and transport of contaminants in groundwater
      • Common remediation techniques
    • Groundwater Monitoring:
      • groundwater monitoring network objectives and design principles for flow and contamination assessment problems
      • monitoring wells design and materials; single versus multi-level wells: why and when
      • pressure transducers and remote transmission systems, data correction for barometric changes
    • Summary and discussion
    Day 4

    Aquifer Tests and Simulating Groundwater Flow using Models

    • Determining Aquifer Parameters: Pumping Tests and Slug Tests
      • Aquifer and pumping tests procedure and common interpretation techniques (Theis, Hantush, Neumann, etc). Basic principles of well hydraulics. Head losses and well interference.
      • Slug Tests: quickly determining Hydraulic Conductivities
      • Exercise: example of aquifer test interpretation using AquiferTest.
      • Discussion: groundwater resource evaluation and sustainable yield
    • Practical exercise: using models to understand and illustrate groundwater flow:
    • Introduction: types of models, input parameters, use, advantages and disadvantages
    • laboratory exercise to allow students to understand the impacts of pumping a well on the groundwater flow field, and using models to simulate common remediation systems.
    • Summary and discussion

    • Environmental engineers
    • Geologists
    • Managers
    • HSE Staff
    • Operation and Maintenance engineers and technicians

    • Groundwater Flow
    • Water Cycle
    • Water occurrence in the subsurface
    • Aquifer hydraulic parameters
    • Groundwater flow regime:
    • Water well design

    G&G, Engineering or Sciences degree

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