• Class and Course

    Introduction to 4D Seismic in Production Management

    Time-lapse (or 4D) seismic is an integral part of reservoir management in many major and medium size oil companies. Successful case studies have demonstrated how using 4D seismic can overcome reservoir engineering challenges. This course provides an overview of the utilization of 4D seismic in addressing reservoir management strategies. The 4D course will be delivered in 3 days and covers 1D to 3D modelling and 4D reservoir characterization. The course will be given in a conventional classroom presentation in modular form. Discussion and interaction with the instructors throughout this time is encouraged.

    This course is designed for geoscientists with an understanding of basic seismic theory. It aims to train students in 4D seismic related topics so that they can get involved in performing 4D seismic studies and provide reservoir management solutions. The audience should come away with a broader understanding, and specific working tools, for the use and interpretation of 4D seismic.

    No software will be used in this course; case studies will be presented and discussed.


    Day 1

    Overview of 4D seismic technology

    • Introduction (+HSE, ice breaker)
    • Business value of 4D
    • 4D seismic for recovery monitoring and infill drilling (field case studies)
    • Petro-elastic modelling
    • Pressure and saturation separation
    • Estimation of connectivity properties from 4D
    • 4D as an effective integration tool
    • 4D History Matching


    Day 2

    Review of Reservoir Engineering concepts in 4D context

    • Production recovery natural reservoir energies
    • EOR recovery techniques
    • Displacement efficiency and sweep
    • PVT
    • Conventional tools for reservoir management and forecasting 

    Rock Physics- the link between petrophysics and geophysics

    • What is rock-physics and its application
    • Elastic properties
    • Parameters affecting velocities
    • 4D rock physics


    Day 3:

    Rock Physics- the link between petrophysics and geophysics

    • Fluid properties
    • Mineral properties
    • Kframe
    • Fluid substitution 

    AVO and seismic modelling

    • Zeoppritiz equation
    • 3-terms approximations
    • AVO theory
    • Seismic well-tie 

    4D seismic modelling advanced topics

    • Sim2Seis
    • Batzle and Wang
    • Calibration of rock physics model to mechanical lab test
    • Fluid substitution in anisotropic rocks
    • Surface seismic/VSP surveys
    • Heavy oil rock-physics
    • Rock physics inversion to temperature variation
    • Modelling to surface
    • 1D or 3D Seismic modelling


    Geoscientists involved in field management with knowledge of seismic interpretation techniques and in general, Petroleum engineers, geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, managers, and others wanting to know what 4D seismic is.

    • An overview of 4D seismic technology
    • Reservoir engineering concepts in 4D context
    • 4D rock physics: the link between petrophysics and 4D seismic
    • AVO and seismic modelling
    • 4D seismic modelling advanced topics

    This training assumes that attendees are familiar with basic theory and fundamentals of seismic and rock.

    Currently there are no scheduled classes for this course.

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