• Class and Course

    Petroleum Geology

    The principal objective of this course is to summarize the fundamentals of Geology that need to be understood and integrated with Engineering data to effectively and optimally manage petroleum reservoirs.

    The goal is for participants to understand the variety of geologic data that are integrated together to carefully describe the three-dimensional geometry of a reservoir. Participants will gain an appreciation for the tools and techniques available to for reservoir characterization and how the resulting data are integrated together.

    Day 1

    • Course objectives ; The role of petroleum geology; World oil reserves production and consumption; Petroleum prices; A field life cycle.

    • Earth structure; Plate Tectonics; Volcano & earthquakes distributions; Fundamental rock types; Geological time scale and rock age dating; Stratigraphic time breaks & discontinuities; Geological Principles.

    • Structural geology; Principle compressive stresses and their relations to rock deformation; Scales of deformation; Faulting styles; Fractures and detection methods.

    • Geological mapping and contouring concepts; Depth terminology; Isopachs and Isochores; Interpretation of gross and net reservoir and net pay thicknesses; Cross-section construction; Topographic outcrop patterns; Subsurface mapping using strike lines.

    Day 2

    • Siliciclastic depositional systems; Sandstone classification and textural characteristics; Aeolian, alluvial fan; fluvial, deltaic, shallow marine and deep marine gravity flow deposits. Synsedimentary deformation; Miocene turbiditic Marnosa-arenacea case study of N.Apennines; Log responses to depositional sequences.

    • Carbonate depositional systems; Modern carbonate environments; Classification of carbonate rocks; Carbonate & clastic systems- contrasted; Carbonate ramps and platf orms; Carbonate grainstone settings; Peritidal carbonates and supratidal sabkhas; Microbial carbonates; Carbonate reefs; Re-sedimented carbonates.

    • Bioturbation: surface traces, burrowing and boring by animals; Rhizoliths and palaeosols

    Day 3

    • Correlation: structural vs. stratigraphic cross-sections; Heterogeneity; Lithostratigraphic vs. chronostratigraphic correlation; Seismic/Sequence stratigraphic concepts; Biostratigraphy.

    • Diagenesis and authigenic minerals; Investigation techniques; Leaching and karstification, cementation and Rotliegendes Fm. clay cement model; replacement and neomorphism; dolomitization models; compaction and pressure solution.

    • Pore systems and flow units; Porosity and permeability controls; Pore types in siliclastics and carbonates; Permeability modelling; Flow zone indicators.

    Day 4

    • Petroleum source rocks; unconventional gas accumulations; Types of source rock organic matter; Source rock maturity indication and modelling; Pyrolysis; Hydrocarbon fingerprinting.

    • Petroleum system processes and play fairways; Hydrocarbon migration; Hydrocarbon trapping mechanisms; Exploration risk analysis; Resource categorization; Hydrocarbons-in-place calculations; Monte Carlo simulation.

    • 3D geocellular modelling. Building the structural-stratigraphic framework; Facies, porosity, permeability and saturation modelling; Seismic constraint; Deterministic and stochastic techniques; Fracture modelling; Flow unit definition; Quantification of uncertainty in volumetrics

    Day 5

    • Seismic methods and petroleum geology; Basic principles of the reflection seismic method; Data acquisition; Data processing; Seismic multiples and seismic migration; 2D, 3D and borehole seismic ; Interpreting seismic results using seismic attributes; Direct hydrocarbon indicators; Time-lapse 3D seismic surveys; Interpretation pitfalls.

    • Open hole wireline logging. History; Basic tool types and their responses; Basic interpretation of lithology, porosity and water saturation, including clay corrections .

    Geoscientists and Petroleum Engineers who require a fundamental understanding of the role and relation of Geology to their job.

    • General Geology

    • Structural Features

    • Geological Mapping and Cross-sections

    • Depositional Systems – Clastics and Carbonates

    • Bioturbation and Diagenesis

    • Correlation and Stratigraphy

    • Pore Systems and Flow Units

    • Petroleum Systems

    • Geological Modeling

    • Seismic and Wireline methods

    Basic understanding of the Oil & Gas industry.

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