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    Petroleum Systems and Exploration and Development Geochemistry

    This five-day course focuses on the dynamic petroleum system concept, exploration geochemistry of conventional and unconventional petroleum, and reservoir geochemistry. The course is designed for exploration, production, and development geologists. Lectures show how geochemistry can reduce the risk associated with petroleum exploration, how to predict oil quality from inexpensive wellbore measurements, how to identify reservoir compartments and de-convolute commingled petroleum, and how to assess completion problems. It provides interpretive guidelines for sample collection and project initiation, how to evaluate prospective source rocks, and how to define petroleum systems through oil-oil and oil-source rock correlation. Case studies and exercises illustrate how geochemistry can be used to solve exploration, production, and development problems while minimizing cost. The lectures and discussions are designed to improve basic understanding of the processes that control petroleum quality in reservoir rocks and the bulk, molecular, and isotopic tools that facilitate that understanding. Discussions cover TOC, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, thermal alteration index, kerogen elemental analysis, geochemical logs and maps, reconstructed generative potential calculations, water analysis, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of oil and gas, compound-specific isotope analyses (CSIA) of light hydrocarbons, biomarkers, and diamondoids, and chemometrics to classify oil families, identify compartments, and de-convolute mixed oils. Pitfalls to correct interpretations are illustrated using in-class exercises.


    Course Outline (all modules discuss interpretive pitfalls and include exercises)

    Module I. The Dynamic Petroleum System Concept

    · Objectives and Nomenclature, Pre-Course Exam

    · Petroleum System Folio Sheet: Map and Cross Section at the Critical Moment, Table of Accumulations, Event Chart, Burial History Chart

    · Introduction to Basin and Petroleum System Models

    · Timing of Petroleum System Events and Processes

    Module II. Origin of Organic Matter, Sample Collection

    · Origin and Preservation of Sedimentary Organic Matter

    · Anoxic Source Rock Depositional Settings

    · Project Initiation and Sample Collection

    Module III. Evaluating the Rocks

    · Vitrinite Reflectance, Thermal Maturation

    · Chemical Reaction Kinetics

    · TOC, Rock-Eval Pyrolysis, Geochemical Logs

    · Fractional Conversion, Original TOC, Expelled Petroleum, Expulsion Efficiency

    Module IV. Exploration Geochemistry

    · Gas Chromatography, Stable Isotopes

    · Surface Geochemical Exploration, Semivariograms and Spatial Significance of Data

    · Biomarker Separation and Analysis, GCMS, GC-MSMS

    · Source- and Age-Related Parameters, Introduction to Oil-Oil and Oil-Source Rock Correlation

    Module V. Preservation and Destruction of Accumulations

    · Thermal Maturity Parameters

    · Biodegradation Parameters

    · Ancillary Geochemical Tools; Semi-Volatile Aromatics, Light Hydrocarbons, Mud Gas Isotope Logging, Fluid Inclusion Volatiles, Diamondoids

    · Chemometrics for Correlation, Property Prediction, Mixture Analysis

    Module VI. Expulsion, Migration, and Reservoir Processes

    · Expulsion/Sorption-Fractionation vs. Primary Migration

    · Secondary Migration and Compartments; Migration Mechanisms: Diffusion, Solution, Gas-Phase, Oil-Phase

    · Gravity Segregation, Biodegradation/Water Washing

    · Desaphalting, Wax Crystallization, Retrograde Condensation, Evaporative Fractionation

    · Microbial and Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction

    Module VII. Gas and Oil Fingerprinting, Production Allocation

    · Oil Fingerprinting: Reservoir Compartments

    · Leaky Casing, Production Allocation

    · Hydrocarbon and Non-Hydrocarbon Gases

    · Gas Shale and Other Unconventional Resources

     Module VIII. Worldwide Case Studies and Conclusions

    · Exploration Geochemistry Case Studies

    · Reservoir Geochemistry Case Studies

    · Conclusions and Post-Course Exam

    Geoscientists needing knowledge of Petroleum Systems,Petroleum Geochemistry and Basin Modeling

    Understand the basic concepts of petroleum geochemistry

    Understand basic geochemical measurements, e.g., Rock-Eval pyrolysis/TOC, vitrinite reflectance, GC, GC-MS, GC-MS-MS, and CSIA, including interpretive pitfalls

    Reconstruct the original petroleum generative potential of spent source rock

    Identify the elements and processes that control petroleum systems and how they are quantified in basin and petroleum system models

    Learn how to collect water, oil, and rock samples and how evaluate data quality

    Use biomarkers, isotopes, and chemometrics to correlate oils and source rocks, establish petroleum systems, and assess thermal maturity or biodegradation

    Understand the fundamentals of water analysis

    Learn how down-hole formation testing can provide in situ measures of fluid properties

    Learn how light hydrocarbons, biomarkers, diamondoids, and isotopes are used to correlate oils and assess thermal maturity, thermochemical sulfate reduction, evaporative fractionation, biodegradation, and other reservoir processes

    Learn how to assess reservoir compartmentalization; identify gas, oil, and water contacts, leakage behind casing; predict oil quality from sidewall cores

    Learn how to assess commingled production and contamination of oil samples

    Learn how to rapidly and inexpensively predict oil properties from core extracts

    Learn various chemometric methods to interpret large volumes of reservoir geochemistry data

    Gain geochemical expertise based on case studies and exercises to allow better communication with colleagues and clients

    Knowlege of Basic Petroleum Geology and Petroleum Systems

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