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Oil & Gas Training
and Competency Development
Competency Management system SLB NEXT

RILS - Advanced Formation Evaluation - Sandstone Reservoir

This is a remote instructor lead delivery version of Advanced Formation Evaluation in Sandstone Reservoirs. This course is suitable for all geoscientists and engineers who will benefit greatly from exposure to advanced knowledge and expertise in formation evaluations in clastics.

The course covers solutions for evaluating various shaly sand reservoirs including techniques and equations. 

The course covers petrophysical evaluation and the challenges of evaluating low resistivity pay sands and determinizing pay characteristics.  The course features many hand-on practical workshops and exercises. This course can be delivered either as a public or private class.  For private (closed) classes the agenda can be customized to fit the clients objectives. 


Module 1  (Duration 4 hours)

  • Course Introduction
  • Pre-Course Technical Assessment
    • Geology of clastics reservoirs
    • The Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential logs to obtain Vsh and Formation Water Salinity
    • Defining the clay type
  • Practical Workshop
  • Assign out of class bonus assignment


Module 2 (Duration 4 hours)

  • Summarize key learnings from Day 1
  • Overview of standard logging tools
  • Summary of Archie equation
  • Quick Look Log Evaluation Techniques
  • Conceptual 3-Line visual log technique
  • Practical workshops
  • Day 2 quiz
  • Assign out of class assignment 

Module 3 (Duration 4 hours)

  • Summarize key learnings from Day 2
  • Applications of the density-neutron cross plot to determine effective porosity, total porosity, hydrocarbon effect and shale volume 
  • Hydrocarbon effects on density-neutron cross-plots
  • Practical workshops

  • Day 3  quiz

  • Assign out of class assignment 

Module 4 (Duration 4 hours)

  • Summarize key learnings from Day 3
  • Acoustic measurements and the acoustic scanner to determine sand compaction and mechanical properties
  • Summary of Core-Log Integration
  • Well 1 and Well 2 Workshops
  • Practical Workshops
  • Day 4 quiz

  • Assign out of class assignment 

Module 5 (Duration 4 hours)

  • Summarize key learnings from Day 4
  • Module Learning Objectives Include
    • Overview of shales and their depositional environments 
    • The various procedures to estimate Vsh. 
    • Estimating Vsh from spectroscopy from direct measurements of Al or obtaining an Al emulator
  • Practical Workshops
  • End of Week 1 Quiz

  • Assign out of class assignment


Module 6 (Duration 4 hours)

    • Summarize key learnings from Day 5
    • Module 6 Learning objectives inlcude
      • Overview of shales and their depositional environments 
      • The various procedures to estimate Vsh. 
      • Estimating Vsh from spectroscopy from direct measurements of Al or obtaining an Al emulator
    • Practical Workshops
    • End of Day 6 quiz

    • Assign out of class assignment


Module 7 (Duration 4 hours)

  • Summarize key learnings from Day 6
  • Module 7 Learning Objectives Include
    • Defining the volumes of dispersed and laminated shales using Thomas-Stieber and Popoun-Juasz . 
    • Evaluating the Cations Exchange Capacity (CEC) of shales  
    • Evaluating the silt volumes from standard logs. 
    • Definition of volume of clay
    • Determining volume of clay
  • Practical Workshops
  • Day 7 Quiz

  • Assign out of class assignment


Module 8 (Duration 4 hours)

    • Summarize key learnings from Day 7
    • Module 8 - Shaly Sand Learning Objectives include
      • The family of empirically derived equations used 
      • Excess Conductivity shaly sand equations: Waxman-Smits (WS), Dual-Water, Modified W-S 
      • Comparison of the results from the various equation
    • Practical Workshops
    • End of Day 8 Quiz

    • Assign out of class assignment

                Session (Duration 4 hours)
                        • Summarize key learnings from Day 8
                        • Module 9 (2.5 hrs) Overview of High Tech. Tools  -  Applications in Shaly-Sand Formations
                            • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Dielectric Logs, Micro-resistivity Imaging
                            • Permeability Estimations in Sandstone-Reservoirs
                      • Module 10  (1.5 hrs) Overview of Reservoir Petrophysics
                      • Overview of Capillary Pressure
                      • Practical Workshops
                        • End of Day 9 quiz

                        • Assign out of class assignment


              Session (Duration 4 hours)
                      • Summarize key learnings from Day 9
                      • Module 10 Continued (4 hrs) - Overview of Reservoir Petrophysics
                          • Introduction to Petrophysical Rock Types
                          • Introduction Applied Capillary Pressure and Saturation Height Modeling
                          • Introduction to Applied Flow Units with Modified Lorenz Methods
              • Practical Workshops
                      • End of Course Post Technical Assessment

                      • Course evaluation


  • Geology of clastics reservoirs and tectonic activities
  • Gamma Ray (GR) and Spontaneous Potential: Tool physics and applications to estimate clay volume, clay type and formation water salinities.
  • Acoustics: Tool physics and applications for rock mechanics; well bore stability, and sandstone compaction. The applications of acoustic to predict High Pressure zones.  The physics and applications of Sonic-Scanner to evaluate anisotropy.
  • Nuclear Log data: Density, Photo electric and neutron tools theory and applications to clastics reservoir. Detailed applications of the density-neutron cross plot to estimate the volume of clay (Vcl, Vsh) and the trends in silt, laminated shale and dispersed shale.
  • Core analysis to obtain porosity, and permeability.
  • Shale Analysis: Elemental Capture Spectroscopy to give evaluations of lithology and shale volume, Evaluations of dispersed and laminated shales.
  • Definition and measurement of the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and its applications in the Waxman-Smits Equation.
  • Detailed derivation of the Dual Water Equation and comparison with the Waxman-Smits and modified Waxman-Smits equations.
  • Log Interpretations in Clastics; This covers in details the derivation and applications of the various shaly-sand equations both the empirical versions (e.g. Indonesia, Nigeria, etc..) and the excess conductivity equations (e.g. Waxman-Smits, Dual Water, etc..).
  • Permeability estimations in clastics reservoirs.
  • Pore Geometry and Flow Units. This covers:
  • Introduction to Petrophysical Rock Typing
  • Capillary Pressure Measurements and capillary pressure obtained from NMR
  • Brief Introduction to Saturation Height Modeling
  • Flow Units applying Modified Lorenz principle
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