Oil & Gas Training
and Competency Development
Competency Management system SLB NEXT

Seismic Acquisition and Processing

The overall objective of this course is to introduce entry level and/or junior Geophysicists and Geoscientists to the essential acquisition and technical processing concepts and principles that form the basis for value added seismic applications in exploration, field appraisal, and reservoir management. Learning objectives are at foundation and  knowledge levels.

Emphasis is on practical understanding of seismic acquisition and imaging. Data examples, exercises, and workshops are used to illustrate key concepts, practical issues, and pitfalls of acquisition and processing as they affect the interpretation and integration of seismic data and information into E&P workflows.

Day 1

Module 1 – Introduction

Objectives –How seismic data assists today’s E&P - 2D vs 3D - Interpreting Seismic Data – Size of operations - Issues & Concerns

Module 2 – Basic Concepts of Seismic Surveying

What makes a seismic trace – Body & Surface waves - Reflection and refraction - Basics of seismic fold and image or stacked traces – Stacking Diagrams

Module 3 – Seismic Wave Propagation

Principles of wave propagation - Physical basis of wave types – Huygens‘s principle - Refractions and Diffractions - Seismic Velocities - Reflection amplitude, converted waves and AVO

Module 4 – Signal Analysis

Waves in time and space, Frequency and Wavenumber, Fourier analysis - Aliasing both spatial and temporal – FK transform - Convolution - Cross & Auto correlation.

Day 2

Module 5 – Seismic Reflection Principles

Properties of Seismic Waveforms and traces – Polarity - Vertical Resolution – Lateral Resolution – Tuning - Amplitude Effects

Module 6 – Field Data Acquisition Principles

Types of Seismic Data Acquisition – Marine, Land, Transition, Borehole, Ocean Bottom, TimeLapse – Signal and Noise – Field Array Design – Alternatives to arrays – Common Reasons for Failure

Module 7 – Marine Acquisition Systems and Operations

Overall Layout – Towing Technology - Sources – Receivers – Benefits of Single sensor recording - Streamer Positioning – Narrow, Wide & Multi Azimuth - Over Under / DISCover – Slanted Cables - Gradient Measurements – Ocean Bottom Recording - Simultaneous Sources - Quality Assurance

Module 8– Land Acquisition Systems and Operations

Sources – Sensors – Positioning - Recording the Data – Arrays or Single Sensor Recording – Full Azimuth recording - Simultaneous Sources – Industry Trends Quality Assurance

Day 3

Module 9 – Near-Surface Distortion Correction

Causes of Distortions – Seismic Datum – Long & short wavelength statics

- Surface Consistency - Methods of Correction – Identifying errors

Module 10 – Wavelets and Wavelet Shaping

Reasons why Wavelet Shaping is necessary – Types of wavelets – Zero & Minimum phase

- Types of Deconvolution - Decon.’s place in the sequence – Examples.

Module 11 – Regularization

The need for regularization – Types of methods used – Cautions - Examples

Module 12 – Noise Attenuation

Noise Types – Noise Removal Methodologies – Organised Noise – Radon Transforms

- Seismic Interference - Random Noise – Examples

Module 13 – Multiple Attenuation

What are multiples? – Types of multiple - Classifications and examples of removal methods

More (different) Radon Transforms – Data Examples

Day 4

Module 14 Velocity Analysis for Time Processing

Types of velocity – NMO stretch – Velocity Analysis Techniques – Potential pitfalls

Module 15 – Velocity Model Building

Importance of velocity - Types of Model geometries – Tomography – Velocity model building techniques – Diving Wave, Tomographic, Complex Salt, Full Waveform Inversion, Multi Azimuth

Module 16 Imaging

Differences between Time and Depth Imaging – Limitations of Post stack imaging - Current Imaging Techniques - Their strengths and weaknesses - Examples – Likely future trends

Module 17 Imaging with Anisotropy

What is anisotropy? – How is it caused – Thomsen’s parameters – Different types of anisotropy – Rules of thumb - Examples

Day 5

Module 18 – Survey Design

Survey Objectives – Geophysical & Processing Considerations

– 3D Surveying – CMP distribution – Binning – Critical Survey parameters

– Calculating their values - Survey Size Calculations – Migration Apertures – Artifacts and Footprints

Recap and Review

Learning activity mix

Entry or Junior Level Geophysicists and more experienced staff who interpret seismic data and need exposure to  acquisition and processing techniques

Understand seismic fundamentals as they affect the interpretation of seismic data.

Understand the concepts involved in imaging geologic structures and properties through seismic data acquisition and processing.

Comprehend the parameters that can seriously affect seismic data quality and costs.

Be familiar with ways to determine whether seismic data has been recorded and processed in a technically correct manner for subsurface objectives.

Communicate effectively with seismic specialists.

Basic understanding of Reservoir Geology and Geophysics

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