• Class and Course

    Sequence Stratigraphy of Siliciclastic and Carbonate sequences

    Sequence stratigraphy is an advanced branch of stratigraphy that deals with description, interpretation, classification and nomenclature of sedimentary strata, based on their stratal stacking patterns and stratigraphic relations. It integrates all other types of stratigraphy including seismic stratigraphy. In the last two decades, sequence stratigraphy has become popular with its application extending to all depositional, tectonic and climatic settings from Pre- Cambrian to Phanerozoic. For these reasons, Sequence stratigraphy is currently one of the most active area of research both in academic and industry environments.

    In this course, an updated concept of Sequence stratigraphy both in silici- clastic and carbonate successions with a set of guidelines that afford a consistent application of the methods across different geological and tectonic settings, scales and above all type of available data will be provided. Most of these concepts and methods are backed by case studies (published and unpublished) from outcrop and subsurface (including seismic). Classroom exercises and case studies are included at relevant places in the course. Further, the course emphasizes on set of core principles that include all the competing approaches from various schools. Keeping it user friendly and flexible, while adhering to the recommendations of International Sub Commission on Stratigraphic classification of the International Commission of Stratigraphy is the fundamental protocol of the course.

    To begin with, the course provides an overview of early historical development of Sequence stratigraphy, beginning with global eustatic controls to present day concepts of Relative Sea level changes; recap of basic terminologies; types of stratigraphies and their interrelationship ; key sedimentological concepts involved in Sequence stratigraphy; classification of depositional environments; briefs about well logs, seismic data and standard work flow to be adopted for Sequence stratigraphic analysis.

    This is followed by the core concepts of Accommodation and Shoreline shift relevant to Sequence stratigraphy including stages of evolution of definition of Sequence stratigraphy, shoreline trajectories (Normal Regression, Transgression and Forced regression). Next is the concept of Sequence stratigraphic surfaces, stratal terminations in seismics and their detailed description aided by case studies including examples from outcrops and sub-surface.

    The concepts of systems tracts are next in the sequence. Each systems tract is discussed with respect to its definition, stratal stacking pattern, architecture, depositional processes and products and economic potential (Petroleum plays and coal, mineral resources). The unconventional systems tracts of the upstream setting of fully fluvial setup are also discussed in detail.

    In this course will be discussed three sequence models in detail viz., Fluvial, coastal and all important deep water clastic system (the last one with excellent core studies  from the eastern Indian ocean).

    Application of Sequence stratigraphy to carbonates has been a topic of great debate and interest. This is on account of the fact that in contrast to the basins dominated by clastics, with sediment supply from  extra basinal source,  most of the carbonates are intra basinal in origin. On account of this, there are significant departures in carbonate basins  from the concepts of siliciclastic Sequence stratigraphy.  This course will discus these in details with excellent back up from core ,seismic and outcrop sections, from producing carbonate reservoirs.

    Finally, the concepts of scales and hierarchy  of Sequences are explained in the context of recent development .The course end with a brief summary of depositional Sequence stratigraphy of Indian Petroliferous basins. 


    (Each lecture is of one hour duration. The course content is for 5 days classroom course (offline) with 8 lecture per day. For online course the duration will be of 10 days with 4 lectures per day.)


    Lecture 1:  Overview of the course, Types of stratigraphy, Sequence Stratigraphic era, Sequence models, Historic developments and milestones, Definitions, and key concepts

    Lecture 2: Types of stratigraphic contacts, conceptual contrast between litho- and Sequence Stratigraphy, Key principles of Sedimentary Geology relevant to Sequence Stratigraphy, Classification of depositional environments, Sequence Stratigraphic workflow

    Lecture 3: Accommodation and Shoreline shifts, Downstream and Upstream areas, underfilled and overfilled accommodations, Base level -definition and concepts

    Lecture 4: Base level (cotd.), Scenarios of relative sea level rise and fall. Shoreline trajectories

    Lecture 5: Evolution of concepts, Stratigraphic sequences

    Lecture 6: Exercise 1

    Lecture 7: Types of sequences

    Lecture 8: Well logs and their use in Sequence Stratigraphy

    Lecture 9: Seismic data

    Lecture 10: Stratal terminations in seismic sections, definitions and diagnostic features, Unique/non unique stratal geometry

    Lecture 11: Stratal stacking patterns and shoreline trajectories in downstream settings, Lowstand and Highstand Normal Regression

    Lecture 12: Forced Regression

    Lecture 13: Transgression

    Lecture 14: Exercises 2,3

    Lecture 15: Stratal stacking patterns in upstream controlled settings

    Lecture 16: Types of sequence stratigraphic units, stratigraphic surfaces, Subaerial unconformity

    Lecture 17: Correlative Conformity, Basal Surface of Forced Regression

    Lecture 18: Regressive Surface of Marine Erosion

    Lecture 19: Maximum Regressive Surface, Maximum Transgressive Surface, Condensed sections

    Lecture 20: Wave Ravinement Surfaces, Tidal Ravinement Surfaces, Within trend facies contcts

    Lecture 21: Exercise 4

    Lecture 22: Systems Tracts, Highstand and Falling stage Systems tracts, their economic potential

    Lecture 23: Case study - Falling stage Systems tracts

    Lecture 24: Lowstand and Transgressive Systems tracts, their economic potential

    Lecture 25: Rivers and Delta

    Lecture 26: Exercise 5

    Lecture 27: Exercise 6

    Lecture 28: Exercise 7

    Lecture 29: Exercise 8

    Lecture 30:  Systems tracts in upstream controlled settings with case study

    Lecture 31: Genetic Sequence stratigraphy, T/R sequences, Parasequences

    Lecture 32: Exercise 9

    Lecture 33: Sequences in Fluvial systems

    Lecture 34: Sequences in Coastal and Shallow water systems

    Lecture 35: Sequences in Deep water clastic systems

    Lecture 36: Scales and Hierarchy of sequences

    Lecture 37: Sequences in Carbonate systems, Hardgrounds, Carbonate diagenesis, Carbonate reservoirs

    Lecture 38: Sequences in Carbonate systems (cotd.)

    Lecture 39: Exercises 10,11

    Lecture 40: Sequences in Indian petroliferous basins and concluding remarks

    Geologists, petroleum engineers or geoscientists, working in Indian basins, seeking to improve their knowledge and skills in sequence stratigraphy.

    •Early developments
    •Core concepts
    •Workflow of sequence stratigraphic analysis
    •Accommodation and shoreline shifts
    •Base level
    •Shoreline trajectories  - Transgression and regression
    •New approaches –stratigraphic sequences
    •Well logs
    •Seismic data
    •Unique/non unique stratal geometries
    •Stratal stacking patterns in downstream/ upstream controlled settings
    •Sequence stratigraphic surfaces
    •Systems tracts
    •Sequence  Models
    • sequences in fluvial systems
    • sequences in coastal to shallow-water systems
    • sequences in deep water clastics
    •Scales in sequence stratigraphy
    •Sequence stratigraphic hierarchy
    •Sequences in Carbonate Systems
    •Depositional sequences in Indian Petroliferous basins
      Cambay Basin
      Basins of western continental margin :
      Cauvery Basin
      Krishna-Godavari Basin
      Mahanadi Basin
      Bengal Basin
      Assam & Assam –Arakan Basin
      Jaisalmer Basin
    •Concluding remarks

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