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Shale reservoirs are known to have low matrix permeability and hence gas production in commercial quantities requires fractures to provide permeability. Hydraulic fracturing is the commonly used technology to create extensive artificial fractures around well bores to enhance production. This process requires use of large amounts of water along with chemicals such as friction reducers, disinfectants, clay stabilizers, guar, cross-linking agents, surfactants, etc., in small amounts to facilitate the fracturing process. Some portion of the frac fluid and potentially connate water will return to the surface as produced water, potentially contaminated with frac fluid chemicals and heavy metals, radioactive material, and dissolved hydrocarbons from the formation. An important aspect of these water concerns is analyzing them for a wide range of constituents. Understanding the analytical testing methods in both the field and the laboratory allows for critical decisions to be made on required treatment, process monitoring and control and for environmental protection.
This course will provide the participants with a good overview of water management, and treatment strategies including topics on sourcing, transportation, storage, treatment technologies, disposal and the regulatory framework. This is a practical training class where analytical techniques will be taught with a hands-on approach utilizing current methodologies and instrumentation in a full-scale teaching laboratory on actual oil & gas waters from various shale plays. Sample collection, sample preparation and laboratory skills will be emphasized and participants will be able to enhance their laboratory skills and knowledge of methodologies.
• Understanding of basic water chemistry
• How water is commonly utilized in shale gas and typical influent and effluent water quality constituents
• Oilfield water management options
• Commonly applied produced water treatment technologies
• How analytical testing of produced waters are a key role in best management practices
• Apply classroom discussions to hands-on laboratory training
Water Cycle and Water Chemistry
o Produced water’s history and Market Overview
o Water Cycle: Sourcing and transportation, water characterization, water treatment (bench top, pilot, full scale), water management for re-use or disposal, and regulatory framework
o Water chemistry
o Lab work: Water Chemistry Analyses and lab instrumentationDay 2
Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Compatibility, Water Transport & Storage, Minimalist Approach
• Frac Fluid Compatibility
• Water Quality by Shale Plays
• Lab work: Laboratory observations of various produced waters
• Water Transport and Storage
• Lab work: Particle size distribution demonstration, Turbidity analysis
• Blending / Minimalist ApproachDay 3
• Water treatment process design
• Produced water treatment technologies
o Oil/water separation
o Bacteria control
o Scaling and cation/anion removal
o Dissolved solids
o Select constituent removal (ie H2S, dissolved organics, boron, etc.)Day 4
o Sample collection and preparation
o Laboratory techniques
o Quality Assurance and Control
o Data managementDay 5
Regulatory Framework & types of water treatment facilities
• Regulatory Framework and Air Emissions
• Types of Facilities
• Practical session: Water treatment design and field trial planning
Engineers actively engaged in Unconventional stimulation design and execution operations. Geoscientists and Managers in Unconventional Resources development such as Shale or Tight gas / oil will also benefit from attending this class.
Engineering degree with 2-3 years of working experience in the Oil and Gas industry.
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