• Class and Course

    Waterflooding: Theory, Applications and Surveillance

    This course covers theoretical background of waterflooding and mainly discusses the reservoir engineering aspects of waterflooding applications.  During this course, participants will also learn about the process of immiscible displacement in a reservoir along with the waterflood pattern options and its effects on the selection and orientation of flood performance and the waterflood candidate reservoir.  Waterflood performance predictions and the surveillance techniques and monitoring tools will also be covered.

    Day 1

    Introduction to waterflooding

    • Overview of Waterflooding
    • Understanding original oil in place and elements of recovery factor
      • Areal sweep efficiency
      • Vertical sweep efficiency
      • Displacement sweep efficiency
      • Effects of drive mechanisms on selection waterflood candidate
    Day 2

    Rock properties and waterflooding

    • Effect of saturation direction: Imbibition and drainage
    • Capillary pressure
    • Wettability
    • Relative permeability concept
    • Analysis of waterflood pattern mobility ratio
    • Pattern configurations
    Day 3

    Flow theory and analysis methods

    • Fractional Flow
    • Buckley Leverett frontal advance theory
      • Water Saturation distribution during a linear waterflood application
      • Estimation of water breakthrough time
      • Performance before and after the water breakthrough
      • Effect of gas saturation
    Day 4

    Analytical performance prediction methods

    • Dykstra-Parsons
    • Stiles
    • Craig-Geffen-Morse
    Day 5

    Surveillance and Monitoring of Waterfloods

    • Distributed Pressure Measurements
    • Production Logging
    • Well Testing
    • Tracer Testing
    • Periodic Well Production Testing
    • Separator Tests
    • Multiphase meters
    • Observation Wells
    • Reservoir Simulation
    • Saturation Logging around the wellbore
      • Sigma Logging
      • Carbon/Oxygen Logging
      • Cased Hole Resistivity
    • Saturation Monitoring in the Reservoir
      • Time lapse Seismic (4D Seismic)
      • Crosswell Seismic Survey
      • Crosswell Electromagnetic Survey

    Engineers and scientists

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